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Consciousness and memory

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Consciousness and memory diAnna Abbiate Fubini Ť distribuito con Licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Condividi allo stesso modo 4.0 Internazionale.

March 13 2017

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Basic - adds and new explanations are at first on #folly and great sorrow, but not forsake #transference, #re-living,#transfert#The_rag_and_bone_shop#sensible_experience
Therefore to specify real design and aims of this file/chapter it is very suitable to confront it wih Anmnesis: a way fo healing... and also, for refuting any risk of misunderstanding, should be seriuosly considered the more bitter controversy shared in the file/chapter: Opinion, fact, complaint


The concept of BEING rightfully belongs to PHILOSOPHY, like the other fundamental and wider principle: the essence of TIME, of changes, of evolutions, in short of the FOURTH DIMENSION of everything, and even more of the living beings. Besides the rearing of babies is a turning point in the running flow of generations, preparing the future "being" of adulthood, and at the same time developing the composite world of the grown-ups' works.
Hence every fact and subjectively every moment of life move into MEMORY and its -  conscious – materialising into continuous and renewed EXPERIENCE.

Albert Einstein and the fourth dimension
An anecdote which perhaps has never actually happened, but which is anyway very instructive.
An old geometric riddle, presented as an anecdote in Maria Toffetti’s book, easily explains the concept of fourth dimension, too often not accepted or confined to irrational vagueness, a concept which would instead seem obvious both on a general level and, even more so, on the level of the living beings’ existence.
Albert Einstein, too, dealt with tetrahedrons: at a congress, having been criticised for his unexpected concept of a space-time in four dimensions, he asked his colleagues to build four equilateral triangles with six tooth pickers. Nobody in the room managed to place on a plane the tooth pickers to form the required triangles, which is, as a matter of fact, impossible. So Einstein built a tetrahedron with the six sticks and commented: “If you can’t use the third dimension, with which you make experiments every day, how can you hope to understand the fourth?”

What does exist is development, and the development is redeeming change
"Childhood" does not exist.
What does exist is "development", and the development is a sequence of redeeming change

News of the whole site

This site and the book do NOT be a fount of notices but an ENCYCLOPEDIC gather of different subjects: one another to be read time by time, or better to be CONSULTED not only for learning.
All links and quotations are continually refreshed: therefore
, if this Web site will always be maintained under speedy and diligently revised construction, also every suggestion from every source will be appreciated and followed.

...criticism or suggestions? Send mail...
On the matter of fact people had to lament hindrances on looking through this site, and asked to be better orientated. To favor this need the site's map changed: as first sight one can begin from a simplified page opening wide the whole indexed files, both the Italian and the English and plurilingual ones, eventually before looking at the file prefacing the English pages, first chapter of the English book .
Cortina Torino
via Ormea 69 10125 Torino (ITALY)
Tel: 0039 0116507074 / 00390116505228
Fax: 00390116502900

The page mirroring this one can be reached not only as file but also as chapter of the derived English book -From children of  YESTERDAY to adults of  TOMORROW
More easy for European readers to order

From children of  YESTERDAY to adults of  TOMORROW
s print-ready in the BookSurge system and will be available for purchase on Abebooks, holding all our books also on Kindle. More easy for European people, at The book endorses this page as chapter 4.

Read also the Amazon's Author presentation
Anna Abbiate Fubini-Biography&Bibliography

Lifelong memories may reside in nets around brain cells

Emily Underwood*
Science  30 Oct 2015: Vol. 350, Issue 6260, pp. 491-492 DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6260.491
In 1898, Italian biologist Camillo Golgi saw something odd in the slices of brain tissue he examined under his microscope: weblike lattices surrounding many neurons. Golgi could not discern their purpose, and many dismissed the nets as an artifact of his staining technique. For the next century, the lattices remained largely obscure. But last week at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in Chicago, Illinois, researchers offered tantalizing new evidence that holes in these nets could be the storage sites for long-term memories. Perineuronal nets (PNNs), as they are known today, are scaffolds of linked proteins and sugars that resemble cartilage. A growing body of research suggests that PNNs may control the formation and function of synapses, the microscopic junctions between neurons that allow cells to communicate and that may play a role in learning and memory.

To general Home: Bambini di IERI = adulti di oggi. Adulti di oggi -> adulti di DOMANI

english pagesGENERAL English INDEX

General Considerations

The present file/chapter is a strict furtherance of the introductory one Anamnesis: a way for healing..., both handling from different sides the same topic: personal past and present linked to settle real personal lives, together with general knowledge of completeness of life-time as basic medical care implement since the contrary - oblivion - can hide harm, weariness, till true illnesses. This English file does not mirror exactly the Italian one Consapevolezza e memoria, since provided with different first hand quotations, references and links. Any way both are validated and completed by the parallel - English and Italian - Quando la cartella clinica Ť terapeutica and Anamnesis. a way for healing..., Dal SUBLIMATO al CONCRETO / From SUBLIMATED towards CONCRETE, and SUBLIMATIONS: visual schemes and scientific explanation files giving the theoretical improvement coming from another point of vue, together with some other files already partly printed on another book It's Abuse NOT Science fiction: Delgado & Skinner, Flashbacks, Memory Recovery and Screen Memories and also by the high-priority file TOTEM AND TABOO REVISITED: the awful and  fertile rise of new SUPERSTITIONS. From this point of view should be added the suggestion to read and consider thoroughly the new chapter Sublimations: visual schemes and scientific explanation since syntetizing the main concepts of this whole work in not usual but impressive terms. Readers don't be stunned on finding some items presented just alike on two files/chapters since if the subject is the same the contexts diverge: on Anamnesis. a way for healing... and on CHILDHOOD: Times of mutability time, memory and ways for healing share their good side whilst here their dark side

Memory is a splendid possibility to hold on themselves the "running away" of passing times and feeling and acknowledgment. Memory can hold and substantiate the personal "fourth dimension". But against memory a powerful, flattering enemies arise: at first the personal regrets and a search of a present security or rather an established stability and also - last but not least - the harm which could flow from recalled past negative occurences.
Children development and its switching phases? Lyfe-cycle aa a continuing source of abandonment and "ghosts"?

... at the same time the baby he was isn't here anymore: for my feeling the "baby" now is "dead". It would like to see just one time the face of that child, embrace him again... the pleasure of living, yet runs so fast. ... at the end of my life with only regrets...

At my sister's house this evening I saw some photos of my niece and nephew when they were little. There was one of F. at four years old and it made my stomach churn!. It seemed almost impossible that he has grown up so much and at the same time the baby he was isn't here anymore: for my feeling the "baby" now is "dead". I had a sensation of being blocked, something which makes me feel terribly afraid and that I worry I can't bear. The pain for that child no longer with us, that child who won't come back anymore and who in a certain sense slipped away from me. How I didn't experience him enough, how many things I missed in him and missed in myself. I's a pain which brings a feeling of emptiness, a pain which opens an abyss - a kind of black hole in into which I fear I will fall. I cling so much to the present that it gives me security, a present that I would like to pass slowly in order to let me savour the pleasure of living, yet runs so fast and the more it runs the more I feel that I am moving towards that abyss of finding myself at the end of my life with only regrets. I's a kind of grief, like that of losing the really passed away Aunt A., it's a kind of grief and an abandonment. You can't imagine (or maybe you can) how difficult it is to make part of me understand that you can't revive ghosts: that part of me doesn't want to hear reason. It would like to see just one time the face of that child, embrace him again. It is obstinate and doesn't want to accept things as they are. At this point i's difficult for me to understand who I am, I'm really confused. But maybe it was time because I've been feeling empty for too long. this morning that I felt like "had my balls cut off" (*) almost in the anatomical sense of the word.
(*) So to say to have my balls cut off  is quite offensive: but why flattering, deceiving words as "security", "to reassure", "to slow down" don't be so much offensive?

The Dark Side and recover

Memory, the basic function to recall data, to get them at consciousness, or simply to get able to bring something to mind...: there are a lot of mixed-up cross-purposes which so often transforms every talk on this subject into a lot of ever more faulty - if not damaging - quid pro quo.
At first it is to be considered that common place people too often mystifies appearance, "broadcast", advertisement, superficial brightness with the whole REALITY itself: to easy memorize is confused with more cleverness; the possibility to find something without conscious effort can be defined not only with the blundering term of intuition, but unfortunately even often it is "burglarized" with the solemn coming on of the mighty name of instinct.
But, very worse, common place people - also badly taught by bad "teachers"- doesn't acknowledge that memory's open go-between on and off function corresponds only to open conscious and at disposal pre-conscious, not to an unconscious great sorrow which doesn't allow to be remembered. Its "forbidden" contents shouldn't be compared with "normal" memory or "normal" oversights or forgetfulness. It is seriously misleading to confuse the normal short time's, middle time's and long time'sto separate the forbearance of the scare from the possibility to manage - painful - memories and then step by step also to transform them into - even resilient - esperiences.
To understand the whole matter, it is unavoidable to avail and better know a basic particular condition of "remembering" which does not share usual "told" verbal MEMORIES whilst real impromptu FLASH-BACKS coming up not from brain but from the woleness of the body itself: and this without any regular "time table" through - involuntary, often unexpected - bodily feelings on a mosaic of visions and daydreams and sub-conscious memories. To RE-LIVE is very different from to "consciously witness". Such sudden "body re-lived feelings", if not body once more relived damages open the leading way to recover the truth of past happenings; any way with their main peculiarity to suddenly surge at random not complying subjective willing, not following a chronological, regular time-table - often at intermittent delays of even some years among previous and next ones instead going up into a strict emotional channel absolutely very far from a descriptive "told" chronological testimony.

Most survivors have questions about their memory processes at some time: 'is it true, did it happen?' or 'why can't I remember?', or even 'why do I keep having intrusive memories?'  As we heal, we also become aware of times when our memories seem different than how we've been lead to believe 'normal' memory works.  We feel like we forget too much, or we have nearly perfect memories.  Often questions about memories of abuse are addressed in therapy, groups, books, etc; but questions about the everyday workings of memory, and how abuse may be affecting our brain function, stay unanswered.  This webinar will primarily focus on what current psychological science knows about basic memory processes, as well as issues unique to the survivor community, learning styles and how they affect memory, tricks to assist remembering, and plenty of Q & A time. :From a speech by Alikina at Memory & Survivors Seminar of Survivorship Webinar (for survivors and professionals)

In the book Die froeliche wissenschaft Friedrich Nietzsche assumed that Folly is the obli
vion of a great sorrow...: then blunting seems to be the final possible defense against hopeless suffering, accompanied in any time by displaced, biased "warnings". If it should even not be sufficient, a blind, wearing forgetfulness growing towards a sort of wicked stupidity seems may help. Providentially this isn't ever an unassailable cruel destiny: even a faint ray of hope could allow it to fade.
But traumatic memories and their to be suddenly or hardly and problematically recollected from their more or less tidy archive not ever plunge on a "unconscious unreachable gap": also this gap could be overcome even only very slowly and with a long watchful delicate care.

I have not to be ashamed to be as sick as I am... I need to move back into my healing zone... that means more in touch with memory and with  pain than with anxiety and terror..., as writes a survivor of desperate tortures.
Therefore the forbearing person can reach wholeness and self authenticity: having undergo a slow, ponderous progression towards real memories of sufferings can reach wholeness and self authenticity, no more replaced by distress displacement covered by pathological, inconsistent "anxiety and terror", deceiving the subject himself, then actual sensibilities can awake again, can further intensify, can further restore more and more skilled receptive feelings to multiply more and more varied stimuli.

It is the healing each of us longs for, and the healing that each of us must accomplish if we are to move forward into our fullest potential. Learning to experience emotions is one of the most difficult tasks that can be undertaken. Many people do not know that they are angry, even when rage flows through them like a river. Some do not know that they are grieving, even when sorrow is the only sun that rises for them in the morning. Most people think of themselves as experiencing emotions only when powerfully emotional currents erupt through their lives, disturbing routines devoted to activities, accomplishments, or survival. Emotional awareness - becoming aware of everything that you are feeling at every moment - is very difficult because we experience so much pain each moment. Becoming aware of our emotions means becoming aware of pain. It is challenging, difficult, and unpleasant. It is also more rewarding than most of us can imagine. That is because most of us cannot imagine a life free from compulsions, fixations, obsessions, and addictions, in which we act with an empowered heart and are free of attachment to the outcome. The alternative to becoming aware of your emotions is to continue masking the pain that you experience. When you do, your pain emerges in unexpected ways distorting your behavior, changing your words, shaping your perception's, and creating consequences that are as unwanted as they are difficult. This alternative no longer works.

Quotation from the Forewords & Introductions. Welcome of the book: The Heart of the Soul: Emotional Awareness by Gary Zukav, Linda Francis.
Read too: Trauma and Dreams by Deirdre Barrett (Editor) Linda Francis, Harvard University Press, 1996 (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England)
Author also of: The Committee of Sleep : How Artists, Scientists, and Athletes Use Dreams for Creative Problem-Solving- And How You Can, Too by Deirdre, Ph.D. Barrett

Memory and scientific data

For years, the brain has been viewed as a relatively static entity, determined by the interaction of genetic preprogramming and early childhood experience. In contrast to this view, recent theoretical perspectives and technological advances in brain imaging have revealed that the brain is an organ continually built and re-built by one's experiences. We are now beginning to learn that many forms of psychotherapy, developed in the absence of any scientific understanding of the brain, are supported by neuroscientific findings. Written for psychotherapists and others interested in the relationship between brain and behavior, this book encourages us to consider the brain when attempting to understand human development, mental illness, and psychological health. This book argues that the brain is an organ of adaptation, built by interpersonal experiences and capable of change during one's life. Written for anyone interested in the relationship between brain and behavior, it encourages us to consider the brain when attempting to understand others and ourselves.
Mystery of Memory Formation [brain] Consolidation refers to a process that stabilizes and enhances memories over time, which is different from memory recall, said Dr. Frank - RESEARCH INTEREST: the function of sleep in developing and adult animals.
February 27, 2009 — A new study sheds light on how cellular changes in the sleeping brain promote the formation of memories. In essence, the study revealed that the sleeping brain is fundamentally different from the brain during wakefulness and that the synaptic changes needed to form the basis of memory function do not happen until sleep occurs.

University of Pennsylvania Department of NeuroscienceThis is the first real direct insight into how the brain, on a cellular level, changes the strength of its connections during sleep. When the animal goes to sleep, it's like you’ve thrown a switch, and all of a sudden, everything is turned on that's necessary for making synaptic changes that form the basis of memory formation. It's very striking, study author Marcos G. Frank, PhD, from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, in Philadelphia - said in a statement.
Researchers looked at an animal model of ocular dominance plasticity — the rearrangement of neural connections in response to life experiences. In this model, when vision in 1 eye is blocked, neurons in the visual cortex begin to respond to the nondeprived eye pathway, and synaptic connections are altered. Previously, the researchers showed that as little as 6 hours of sleep are needed for this synaptic remodeling. In the current study, they determined that activation of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and of intracellular kinase play key roles in this process.
If you block either the NMDA receptor or this downstream enzyme, you block normal enhanced plasticity, Dr. Frank told Medscape Psychiatry.The study is published in the February 12 issue of Neuron.

Babette Rothschild
From the Publisher of The Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Building and Rebuilding the Human Brain by Louis Cozolino
Thanks to concrete applications of the newest findings, readers will find this (Babette Rothschild, MSW).
(But these concepts have a double-edged meaning since they can be "used" in a double-edged way: they can explain the possibility of healing even persons who have suffered terrible past mishaps, but can also suggest that the proneness to superstition in humankind can rather easily allow too many people to be brain-washed almost before having realized that they own their minds.)

The most serious social side effect of pathological trance is the reduced awareness and disabled communication. Communication of information is critical for any system to function. Human systems as well as computer systems, ecological, biological, political and social systems and more all require clear, accurate, timely communication of information in order to function. The lack of clear, accurate, or timely communication between individuals is the basis for misunderstandings, disappointments, hurt feelings, resentment, and violence. The human, economic, agricultural, industrial and social systems that rely on people who are in pathological trance has disastrous consequences.

Trance as a Tool Dennis R. Wier Director,
Join the Dalai Lama and the most innovative thought leaders in neuroscience, psychology, clinical science, the humanities, philosophy, and education as they present their groundbreaking research.
Any way we can also quote from Wier that there are light trances, deep trances, short-term trances and life-long trances. There are pain relieving trances and pain producing trances. There are healing trances and pathological trances. Studying trance for many years and one can explore some important areas where trances can be found: hypnosis, addictions, religions and work. So what is a trance? To many psychologists a trance is a state of limited awareness. Some psychologists would also characterize trance as a form of sleep, or dreamlike awareness or a kind of altered state of consciousness. Certainly trance has long been associated with hypnotic states - it is to say: limited and focalized intensuve attention - and with the altered states of consciousness of dervishes, shamans and yogis. Meditation does produce strong trance states. However, surely, trance states are much more common than is normally believed. If the unusual trance state of a shaman or a yogi is desirable, then we might be tempted to believe that all trance states are desirable states. Powerful yogic trance states are often created by the long term practice of meditation. When the mind is temporarily anchored in trance, a yogi may become sensitive to subtle influences or may gain enhanced and subtle perceptions. In addition, yogic trance states can also produce effects at a distance. Trance is a repetition or looping of consciousness. When the content of the trance has achieved a resonance, special types of psychic forces are generated.The effects of these special psychic forces are often identified with the behavior which produced them. Trance- for a yogi - is merely a tool consciously chosen to produce a specific result. Trance for most other people is an unconscious choice made to relieve pain or to avoid uncomfortable feelings or situations. Pathological trance is unfortunately almost universally encouraged within business organizations. The more an employee can with single-minded determination execute the orders and policies of his organization, the more that employee is rewarded, promoted and respected. Single-mindedness, however, is a pathological trance. And trance always implies that there are areas where the employee is "asleep", unaware. When organizations encourage trance in their employees, and since trance disables communication, then there can be no wonder why there are so many system dysfunctions in the world. When, unlike a yogi, we do not choose our trances, and we are unaware of the types and nature of the pathological trances in our lives, then there are things we are unaware of. What we are unaware of causes more human suffering than the sometimes painful knowledge of the truth. One goal of a robust and magical life is to be as aware as possible of our options. When our unconscious pathological trances cripple our options the result is often disaster and tragedy in our personal lives, our society and in the environment.

Counter transference: Effects on the Group Therapist Working with Trauma
A discussion of:
1.  Hazardous Terrain: Countertransference Reactions in Trauma Groups by Maggie Ziegler and Maureen McEvoy, pp. 116-140.
1. To learn to identify countertransference when working with trauma groups. 
2. To learn to identify vicarious traumatization when working with trauma groups.
MEG May Provide Objective Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress
DisorderComplex PTSD / DESNOS
This website is provided as an educational resource concerning PTSD and other enduring consequences of traumatic stress

Any way: a fake "benevolent" hypocritical approach
... Old fear memories can be ALTERED /DISRUPTED
Before memories are stored, there is a period where they are susceptible to being disrupted, said Elizabeth Phelps of New York University, whose study appears in the journal Nature.

Psychological Approaches May Have the Potential to Block Fearful Memories
Pauline Anderson
December 11, 2009 — Researchers may have planted the seeds of what may eventually become a safe therapeutic alternative to drugs for blocking the return of fearful memories.New York University in New York City are aiming to apply some of this new knowledge to behavioral interventions in humans. However, one of the first steps was to demonstrate that old fear memories can be altered. In a new study published online December 9 in Nature, researchers showed that by introducing new, safer information during what is called the reconsolidation phase, it may be possible to permanently change fear memories. This period may provide a "window of opportunity" to rewrite emotional memories. Taking their cue from emerging animal research that sheds light on the molecular process of memory storage, investigators at

Finding past memories...

Again it should be required a short explanation on regard of the presented DOCUMENTS: to understand the whole matter and also to receive an avail to better know this particular condition of "remembering" not sharing usual "told" verbal MEMORIES whilst real impromptu FLASH-BACKS coming up without any regular "time table" from - involuntary, often almost unaware - bodily feelings on a mosaic of visions and daydreams and sensing. These body memories come following a strict emotional channel absolutely very far from a descriptive "told" chronological testimony. To RE-LIVE is very different from "consciously witness": sudden "body re-lived feelings" - if not body damages once more occurring - is the leading way to recover the truth of past happenings: one of its main peculiarity is to suddenly involuntary surge at random not following a chronological, regular time-table: often at intermittent delays of even some years among previous and next ones - look at the not systematic dates of description of occurring events.

Conscious and Unconscious Processes: Psychodynamic, Cognitive, and Neurophysiological Convergences
by Howard Shevrin (Editor), James A. Bond, Linda A. W. Brakel, RichaHertel, William J. Williams 
The notion of an unconscious mental life has been a source of controversy for more than a century...
If you are hoping to see evidence that psychoanalysis is becoming a science, you'll want to read it. If you are one of those critics who claims that psychoanalysts can never agree on the interpretation of such matters as real people's unconscious conflicts, or a believer in the hermeneutic approach who feels that clinical judgments about important matters in patients' lives must be bent out of recognizable shape by the demands of scientific method, you must read it! Provides a model example of a methodologically rigorous project that nonetheless retains the richness of the clinical endeavour. Clinicians and researchers alike will be happy to see the clear example of intriguing and important psychoanalytic research.... Conscious and Unconscious Processes is essential reading for analysts who feel it is valuable to demonstrate the empirical basis for fundamental psychoanalytic assumptions.... Shevrin and colleagues... constructed a groundbreaking method through which to evaluate the notion of unconscious conflict. They have succeeded in demonstrating nothing less than evidence for the existence of the dynamic unconscious... The crucial importance of this work will be readily apparent to the interested psychoanalytic reader.

Therefore, on RECALLING previously unaccepted PAST MEMORIES one can FIND ONESELF again and AWAKE again to self assured, but previously blocked then never developed emotions: including curiosity, fantasy and participation as well as future projects. In such a way, conscious affectivity and controlled aggressiveness could expand, DEVELOP and grow richer: feelings, true relationships, interests, skills and proficiency in learning, no longer enslaved by suffering or blunting can grow again and THRIVE. It has been said: Folly is the oblivion of a great sorrow: but so far - as written at the beginning - is furnished a bit of hope within such numb oblivion, the sleeping reason that breeds monsters can still be found and awaken. 
It is nevertheless always a very difficult and painful task, as a "survivor" wrote: 

I cannot keep all  things straight. the remembering goes back and forth  and not straight in a line... Taking very shaky steps in a crooked and zig-zagging manner, approaching and avoiding the awful truth that this happened... but knowing there was a cause for my pain, and that this cause makes sense, allow these multi-level memories... [even if and  when] the inner work, the therapy has lost [inevitably] its sweetness... So hard to go back and forth between therapy and life - whatever that is...

However, if for the suffering persons this "crooked" way seems to give rise to more and more discouragement, notwithstanding FOR THERAPISTS it is exactly this ZIG-ZAGGING manner of the emergence of memories, which denotes and GUARANTEES the truthfulness of them: an all too bold precision has ALWAYS to be trated as warning sign, since, as in all testimony, this accuracy is always a trap. It can be prone to deceive and drag towards deceitful directions every times, towards a tricky area in memory recovery research, towards the accidental scrambling of [contaminated] memories, which without even realizing this, after having reappeared in flash-backs can be "changed" by others' suggestions, by fear, by unbearable pain, by inner unwillingness, by proneness to commonplace certainties (aka: 'collective consciousness')... 
Much of the journey involves a walk through Dante's Inferno. Pain and every form of death are inherent to the process. This journey requires going much deeper than‚€˜collective consciousness' wants to go... (excerpt from ~ The Way of the Wound ~ by Robert Grant, PhD quoted in November Survivorship Monthly Notes).
(Read and ponder the quotes below chosen in the transcript of the presentation by Kathleen Sullivan at The Fourth Annual Ritual Abuse, Secretive Organizations and Mind Control Conference, August 10 - 12, 2001:
Ordinary memory tends to be more conscious, voluntary and flexible, while traumatic memory is usually more involuntary and unconscious, and is often rigid. Ordinary memory tends to be more oriented in time, whereas traumatic memory is usually frozen outside of time . . . coming more from our unconscious mind. And even while it is frozen in time, when it surfaces unconsciously or when we consciously remember it we feel like it is happening right now, at this very moment, as opposed to having happened in the past. Trauma memory is stored as state-dependent memory. According to Dr. Whitfield, state-dependent memory means we tend to remember better when we are in the same inner or experiential state that we were in when we first experienced or learned something.

This is why survivors and therapists talk so much about triggers. Triggers are stimuli that we felt or experienced during the original trauma. The memory gets attached in our mind to the triggers. And then later, encountering the triggers again will bring up the memory of the trauma. This is an example of state-dependent memory. The effect of encountering the trigger brings up the memory. Now I want to talk about a tricky area in memory recovery research - accidental scrambling of memories. Please bear with me. I will explain where I'm going with this. I'm not a member of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation and frankly, I think the basis of their so-called foundation is purely evil. However, that does not mean that I don't believe my traumatic memories can't be contaminated after I've remembered them. I've talked with several therapists who are very dedicated to helping trauma survivors. They have confirmed what I've learned. This information I'm about to give you is simply to help us all sort out verifiable memories from those that can be used in a negative way to discredit us in public or in court.

This confirms moreover that sleeping reason breeds monsters, not only in the present and not only in a single person. Monsters breed other and other monsters: monsters deceiving, disqualifying, harming or at least threatening creating solidarity among criminals to cover - present and past - misdeeds. More often reason and truth are sleeping merely, but are not less damaging, either due to lack of skill in listeners / healers or an - at least plausible - avoiding the awful truth in the victims themselves.

We Can Implant Entirely False Memories Laura Spinney
on our remembrance of things past... The Guardian - UK Thursday December 4, 2003
...Alda was the unwitting guinea pig of Elizabeth Loftus, a UCI psychologist who has beenobsessed with the subject of memory... Neuroscientists admit that by administering beta-blockers like Propranolol, they can induce false memories in susceptible people, particularly those who have suffered a traumatic experience, (torture) leaving them "open to memory distortion - so true and false become harder to disentangle...

(Such a bold, stiff, opposed, ill-meaning and disparaging reasoning is defined in the site of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation where you can read also some samples of FMS FOUNDATION IN THE DSM.

Significant books by Elizabeth Loftus, just one of its main Authors are:
The Myth of Repressed Memory

But not only theoretic psychology tries to suppress memories: also the factual disease mongering of pharmaceutics production uses this process to purchase and maintain an inventory of goods to be sold. To beware how distressing consequences could have even helpful findings, consider that concrete researches using brain imaging scans identify the neural systems involved in actively suppressing memory, can be misused:
this research suggests memories can be manipulated because they act as if made from glass, existing in a molten state as they are being created, before turning solid. When the memory is recalled, however, it becomes molten again and so can be altered before it once more resets. The drug used by the scientists is thought to disrupt the biochemical pathways that allow the memory to "harden" after it is recalled. The researchers used propranolol, a drug normally used to treat hypertension in heart disease patients but also known to cause memory problems.

Notwithstanding on the contrary these concrete scientific and technologic proofs do technically confirm the - for his time being only theoretic - Freud's core findings. To be then more "fair" when facts are to be praised, data regarding advantageous researches should be acknowledged: look at Stanford Report, Jan. 8, 2004
Stanford report Research reveals brain has biological mechanism to block unwanted memories BY LISA TREI: For the first time we see some mechanism that could play a role in active forgetting.

Using brain imaging scans to identify the neural systems involved in actively suppressing memory, reinforcing Sigmund Freud's controversial century-old thesis about the existence of voluntary memory suppression in a 2001 paper published in Michael C. Anderson MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom by How Does The Brain Block Unwanted Memories? MNT Knowledge Center Written by University of Oregon Published: Friday 9 January 2004 email 5 SHARE 1 titled Suppressing Unwanted Memories by Executive Control: the big news is that we've shown how the human brain blocks an unwanted memory, that there is such a mechanism and it has a biological basis.

Psychologists offer proof of brain's ability to suppress memories by LISA TREI

For the first time, researchers at Stanford University and the University of Oregon have shown that a biological mechanism exists in the human brain to block unwanted memories. The findings, published Jan. 9 in the journal Science, reinforce Sigmund Freud's controversial century-old thesis about the existence of voluntary memory suppression. The big news is that we've shown how the human brain blocks an unwanted memory, that there is such a mechanism and it has a biological basis,said Stanford psychology Professor John Gabrieli, a co-author of the paper titled Neural Systems Underlying the Suppression of Unwanted Memories. It gets you past the possibility that there's nothing in the brain that would suppress a memory -- that it was all a misunderstood fiction.The experiment showed that people are capable of repeatedly blocking thoughts of experiences they don't want to remember until they can no longer retrieve the memory, even if they want to, Gabrieli explained. Michael Anderson, a psychology associate professor at the University of Oregon and the paper's lead author, conducted the experiment with Gabrieli and other researchers during a sabbatical at Stanford last year. It's amazing to think that we've broken new ground on this ... that there is a clear neurobiological basis for motivated forgetting, Anderson said. Repression has been a vague and controversial construct for over a century, in part because it has been unclear how such a mechanism could be implemented in the brain. The study provides a clear model for how this occurs by grounding it firmly in an essential human ability -- the ability to control behavior. In recent years, the question of repressed memory has attracted considerable public attention concerning cases involving childhood sexual abuse. That was very controversial because it went through two pendulum swings, Gabrieli said. The first swing was that people thought, 'What a horrible thing.' The second was that people said, 'How many of these might be false memories?' Then people started asking does repressed memory even exist, and can you show that experimentally or scientifically? The big news is that we've shown how the human brain blocks an unwanted memory, that there is such a mechanism and it has a biological basis, said Stanford psychology Professor John Gabrieli, It gets you past the possibility that there's nothing in the brain that would suppress a memory -- that it was all a misunderstood fiction.

EDITORS: Photographs of John Gabrieli and Michael Anderson and brain images are available online at (slug: Memory). The paper, Neural Systems Underlying the Suppression of Unwanted Memories, is available from the AAAS Office of Public Programs at (202) 326-6440 or Relevant Web URLs: Science AAAS.

Lifelong memories may reside in nets around brain cells
Emily Underwood*
Science  30 Oct 2015: Vol. 350, Issue 6260, pp. 491-492 DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6260.491
In 1898, Italian biologist Camillo Golgi saw something odd in the slices of brain tissue he examined under his microscope: weblike lattices surrounding many neurons. Golgi could not discern their purpose, and many dismissed the nets as an artifact of his staining technique. For the next century, the lattices remained largely obscure. But last week at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in Chicago, Illinois, researchers offered tantalizing new evidence that holes in these nets could be the storage sites for long-term memories. Perineuronal nets (PNNs), as they are known today, are scaffolds of linked proteins and sugars that resemble cartilage. A growing body of research suggests that PNNs may control the formation and function of synapses, the microscopic junctions between neurons that allow cells to communicate and that may play a role in learning and memory.

Alcohol as a powerful ADDICTIVE drug

Some people drink to forget, but scientists have found that anyone who binge drinks is more likely to forget only the worst experiences of being drunk which is why alcohol is such an addictive drug. Alcohol has been found to affect memory in a selective manner. Drinking makes it easier to remember the good things about a party but harder to recall the bad things that happen after having too much. Studies into the memories of people engaged in heavy drinking have shown that it is the inability to remember the worst excesses of a night out ‚€“ while remembering the happy things that led up to them is one of the main causes of repeated binge drinking. The effects of alcohol on mood are known contributors to its use and abuse. It is less known how its effects on memory and inhibitory control add to alcohol being and addictive drug, said Professor Theodora Duka of Sussex University. Material acquired in an intoxicated state is less effectively retrieved in a sober state. Thus people who abuse alcohol forget the consequences of intoxication during periods of abstinence, Professor Duka said. Alcohol is well known to affect mood. It reduces anxiety, induces elation and pleasure, while removing inhibition, making people feel more in control compared to when they are sober. But the effect of alcohol on memory is one of the least-understood aspects of alcohol abuse, yet it could be one of the most important in terms of explaining why the drug is so powerfully addictive, Professor Duka told the British Science Festival. The effect of alcohol to weaken control processes intuitively appears to be the most important contributor to the development of alcohol addiction, since alcohol addiction is perceived to be an inability to control drinking, she said. Alcohol facilitates memories for emotional events experienced before intoxication ‚€“ mostly positive ‚€“ and impairs memories for emotional events experienced after intoxication ‚€“ often negative ‚€“ biasing memory to positive effects of alcohol, and support [for] further drinking. Why drinkers do it all again they only recall the good bits. Memory tests on volunteers who were shown emotion-laden images before, during and after a bout of drinking found there was a clear degradation in memory as the alcohol began to build up in their bodies. Alcohol facilitated memory for material seen after its administration. More importantly, under the influence of alcohol, emotional images seen before alcohol consumption were recalled more whereas emotional images seen after alcohol consumption were recalled less, she said. Further studies found alcohol also increases the risk of making wrong judgements and impulsive decisions, especially in women. This is another reason why drinking can increase the risk of further bingeing by affecting the brain's control process, Professor Duka said. Social heavy drinkers who binge drink show inability to withhold an inappropriate response when sober. They also are worse in planning than their counterparts that do not binge drink, she said.

Resilience and evolution

From Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: re·sil·ience Pronunciation: ri-'zil-y&n(t)s Function: noun
1 : the capability of a strained body to recover its size and shape after deformation caused especially by compressive stress
The strength to dare to bear also awkward sufferings, does not outline masochism: on the contrary it is the only way to care for oneself and also to become more "sturdy" on absorbing the adverities. Pain and deep sadness aren't weakness, neither really more intolerable nor worse than illnesses such as anxiety, compulsivity or silly, irrevocable frailty:
VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE: Personality, Individual Differences, and Behavior Differences is illuminating the sources of these differences and revealing ways to bolster people's ability to deal with life's difficult and painful aspects. Studies to date suggest that there is no single source of resilience or vulnerability. Rather, many interacting factors come into play.

Read here below a quote written by a very suffering, courageous "survivor":

[When]the pain and depression are deepening. Am I a masochist or is it just a relief to have the pain instead of the intolerable anxiety? even if only to restore the sadness over the anxiety. How crazy this sounds. But how right. It's called "being as sick as I am", and right now feels as bad as the compulsivity.
Either a distressing anxiety and/or compulsivity, or a self-complying search of erratic novelties and/or capricious sentimentalisms are very unsteady ways: every selfishness conveys towards a NARROW, stiff path. Fragility is an attribute of "stiffness"  when instead an elastic Resilience shows the capacity of a material to absorb ENERGY under shock, moreover to be improved by shocks themselves. Fragile materials ABSORB limited energy? Ductile materials absorb, tame and upgrade much energy. However if fragility is always associated with rigidity as the incapacity to absorb shocks, sometimes the almost similar "delicacy" can be present in a not rigid way: it can protect itself, but only within a narrow and limited space; the main and most worse case is the multiple personality disorder artificially induced or perhaps spontaneously coming from otherwise unberable suffering.
(In the file/chapter Consapevolezza e memoria one can find - damage: only in Italian - a very FIRST HAND emotional testimony referring to an artificially induced "multiplicity" till the first childhood.)

Nevertheless in confined space, and in precise times a similar non-rigidity can give way to a certain plastic flexibility: this is NOT an evolutive solution since it restricts the situation to a single direction, which can be defined in the more optimistic situation with the terms of conformist adaptability,  in the worse one as the "induced indifference" of ... for example the guilt-free soldiers. In the best of cases the adult vulnerability brings only forth stagnation in a static environment to prevent every possibility of renovating those experiential enrichments too difficult and painful to be sustained and managed. Therefore children and young people are the "new" are the "different", are a big trouble upsetting this pseudo-adaptability. The despised children brought up according to this static world will miss the best of the developmental wealth, could not profit by each new experience, cannot modify the whole system of development, will grow only finalized to a static and narrow pseudo-maturity. Therefore they will not only miss the best of the developmental wealth, could not profit by each new experience, cannot modify the whole system of development with often devastating results. Generation after generation they cannot start new syntheses and renewals also since they miss and disparage their baby's and childhood's souvenirs if not the whole memory.
Flexibility and capacity to fit in well are thus NOT synonyms of ductile elasticity, which is, on the contrary, the resilient capacity to absorb and validate energy contributions: starting from there, new creative openings towards new evolutionary routes are always possible, and these assimilated experiences - whether good or bad  - once integrated into one's life constitute the sources of vital wisdom.
A semantic note on the terms evolution and development is here required. EVOLUTION means something more than development: only entities, already present and still unvoiced, can develop, while great creative forces can promote, one could almost say GENERATE, evolutions in new and totally unexpected directions.

A metaphor to visually explain these concepts: THE TREE.

tree as metaphorpersons and tree

    1. Originary personality as roots, plunging and nurturing into a rich or poor, favourable or difficult ground; 
    2. Trunk as development with its regular year by year phases and improvements (or faults);
    3. Finally: the unceasing and unpredictable EVOLUTION of branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds.
On considering again in this point of view, RESILIENCE has to be connected more with EVOLUTION.
Fragility and vulnerability are the OPPOSITE of RESILIENCE, with its capability to incorporate and be improved by the force of hits: so "human" resilience could also be considered as a way to master even the worse damages by absorbing it into an evolutionary, increasing wisdom. (A quick remark: evolution is more than development: only what is already existent as blossom can "develop" whereas the evolutionary ways can more and more expand in new and manifold directions.

Look at Mental Health Problems and Young People: Concepts and Practice by Louise Rowling, Graham Martin, Lyn Walker
Strenghtening Foundations

Damaged development

However not only traumatic stress illnesses exist, not only an original great sorrow. As happens in analogy with the embryogenesis' biological "organizers", where function has to follow strict patterns of mode, times and ordered SEQUENCES to create "perfect" beings and not "monsters", also in the psycho-sociological and emotional field there are particular needs (to be emphatized: "NEED" not "wish") acting as organizers. Therefore, if they are not timely FULFILLED and in the correct series, they violate a basical Nature law: from an apparently "small" trauma at the start, this can perturb not only a crucial developmental phase but all the ensuing outcomes. Here is the new "monster" which can start a chain of errors worsening up to the point of sweeping away the whole of life in a vicious circle coiling in on itself, even beyond the suffering person until it overwhelms many existences in the present as well as the future: ones's own and other peoples'.

Look at the embryogenesis' biological "organizers":
A Selective History of Induction II. Spemann's induction experiments The Spemann-Mangold organizer
In 1901, Curt Herbst wrote that he thought it possible
to establish the occurrence of formative stimuli which are exerted from one part of the embryo to another, and to demonstrate eventually the possibility of a complete resolution of the entire ontogenesis into a sequence of such inductions. This prediction of inductive cascades was a bold statement, given that no sequence of events had yet been observed (1, 2). But that was soon to change. That same year, HANS SPEMANN (3) published one of the most significant and seminal papers in the history of embryology (4). his experimental analysis of lens formation in the frog.... In 1924, while working on the relatively large eggs of amphibians he discovered, together with Hilde Mangold, the existence of an area in the embryo, the portions of which, upon transplantation into a different part of a second embryo, induced the secondary embryonic primordia. The name "organizer centre" or "organizer" was given by him to those parts. For this discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1935.
A crucial developmental phase... can well happen in order to heal the worst traumatic sufferings, so all is NEVER lost after a faulty childhood: 

I am nothign but a foolish old woman who is still a child if she has ever been a child.... [But] an adult in strong need of regression can truly go  back to an earlier stage of development... yes, even a missed or badly done one.

(A crucial developmental phase...: how to know and PROTECT the perfect, basic discontinuity of the different stages of thriving...: this is exactly the main aim of the book Childhood: times of mutability
So if folly is the oblivion of a great sorrow this isn't an ineluctable destiny. Development has NATURALLY a typical  regularity of its own in its performing towards the Future, and likewise for the Past where such a basic regularity is held in the memory where it stays and can be regained. Nothing can be lost: neither the past facts nor even any disaharmonized or refuted developmental phase. Every time the whole sequence of deeds carried out and also of not-completed evolutions can be reactivated and performed towards a possible utter RIPENESS.
Unfortunately snaring "monsters" go on and on breeding other monsters. Unfortunately not always, only seldom, can these beneficial memories be regained: the opposing forces are too many: environmental, as well as human unwillingness, weakness and/or wickedness.
Even without reaching true madness, blunting can be disguised or covered not only by true pathological symptoms but more often by a swaggering and/or vain style of life, in a rough world of inconsistent "very high" and "very low" feelings - or even by their only shared exaggerate expression - investing both memory and mutual communication. Once the defensive dulling is activated (be clear that it happens in a totally unconscious way) it unrelentingly provokes a series of vicious circles, investing not only memory but also self-consciousness and social communication. The trodden dignity of the self, as well as that of the other, the reneged sensibility to RIGHTS and WRONGS and disregarded needs turn into susceptibility, claims, interpretations of reality, reduced to exasperated auto-referential differences being only apparently compensated by the availability of second and fallacious allurements and/or threats (the so-called give and take policy). The needs are only quantitative and unchangeable, defined for ever in the static concept of INFERIORITY and/or ‚€œsuperiority‚€�. Research into the EXCEPTIONAL, which has not an evolutionary, but a "miraculous" character, opens scenarios of acritical expectations, of vain hopes (such as gambling), of contempt and desperation that aggravate the needs that have been overlooked. Fragility, incompleteness, failed experiences and openings, existential inadequacy! - all equipped with sham compensations - add public misconduct to personal misfortune by making the ‚€œinferiors‚€� a very easy pray for whoever - credited as the ‚€œpowerful‚€� - wants to enslave them by allurement. At the same time, they find relief in further vindications that induce a further depersonalization, creating both enslavement and thoughtlessness towards the "superior", and maldisposition, up to maltreatment, towards 'inferiority'. It is a world - or rather: an imagined, immaterial world - made up of wants confused with needs and vice versa; reality avoided into inconsistent phobias; malaise turned into wild hostilities; blind admiration for presumed exceptionality changed in the direction of proneness to incitement.... Anger so often assumed to be... a panic attack (!), as well as sexual whims mistaken as the only way to feel one does exist...
In such a delusive world one can crouch in silly, irrevocable frailty, or waste oneself by running towards erratic novelties, and/or pure outward appearance / amusement / excitement; one can equally and often alternatively cuddle up to sufferings "sine materia", or to guilt feelings without any sense; or can boast the real suggestibility believed instead to be emancipation; one can be proud of capricious sentimentalisms and/or selfishness propagandized as goodness; can flatter himself with envious longing for dependence and undeserved praise mixed-up with blind rebellions and blackmailings.... To sum up above all it is a fatuous but dangerous hatred of freedom and a despising of awareness (take a look at Aldous Huxley's classic book Brave New World, and then warn "our" not-brave "first" world).
revealed already in the plan of its title.)

Memory and dissociation

BETRAYAL: parents place their children in unprotected abusive situationsSPLITTING THE MIND: overwhelming pain

As written above, there are in actual extreme cases of either double or multiple personality, that is to say people who forget their true body, who believe they are another/ or unrelated different persons, and behave accordingly. Probably all this originates from different causes: however here is not the right place to discuss them.
A spontaneous recent comment by a friend till teen age of a "multiple" girl:
[ I felt not to care for "one" person: instead to be with a "collective cooperative"] - mi sembrava di aver a che fare con una "cooperativa" non con "una" persona.
Read this very telling books for accessible examples:
Sybil book coverF.Reta Schreiber 'Sybil'  1975 Penguin books. There is also a movie from this book: Sybil (1976) (TV: director: Daniel Petrie, actors: Sally Field = Sybil Dorsett, Joanne WoodwardDr. Cornelia Wilbur).
Real people:
Cornelia Wilbur,M.D.: August 26, 1908
April 9, 1992

Shirley Ardell Mason has been reported by the press to be Sybil, the real-life prototype for the book of the same name, a case study based upon her life. Dr. Cornelia Wilbur was the courageous analyst who dared to see that something very different was happening with her patient. This page is under construction. I will gradually add quotations from news articles about the real life women behind the story.

Dissociation: Clinical and Theoretical Perspectives by Steven Jay Lynn (Editor), Judith W. Rhue (Editor)

Covers the major aspects of dissociation, from the predominant models and diagnostic and treatment approaches, to research, clinical, and conceptual issues. Presents practical information for diagnosing and treating clients suffering from dissociative disorders, post- traumatic stress disorders, and the consequences of sexual victimization and cult involvement, and discusses social and cultural factors. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or. 

Much more frequent however are cases of memory lapses where disturbing reminiscences are pushed back. (In the main text DSM-IV these are technically called dissociations). They can regard real facts - objectively serious or even only subjectively disturbing - but they can then lead to the avoidance of, or even comply with, the will to throwing away unbearable EMOTIONS, and/or emotions unacceptable because they are embroiled together, or cannot adapt to displeasing facts. 
Possible "dissociations" from memory or from awareness of the present can hit everyone, but this is NOT a problem concerning brain power, or age, or how long ago the facts happened: it is well-known
that old people can remember faultlessly events in the distant past, much better than recent news and it has been proved that one can participate in and remember birth's and pre-birth experiences.
Memory preserved and memory to be lost... : look also to the recent movie Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind

Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind
Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) 
Directed by Michel Gondry
Writing credits (WGA)
Charlie Kaufman (story) & Michel Gondry (story) ... Genre: Drama / Romance / Sci-Fi / Comedy. Plot outline:
A couple (Jim Carrey and Kate Winslet) undergo a procedure to erase each other from their memories when their relationship turns sour, but it is only through the process of loss that they discover what they had to begin with.
Memory laneMemory Lane
Le intermittenze del cuore - is the story as an emotional autobiography of an elderly Italian film director commissioned by a French producer to make a film on the life of Proust. During the preliminary preparations - which take him back and forth between France and Italy - Proust's great description of involuntary memory becomes real for him as he starts reliving key moments from his own past. In a series of free associations (visual, tactile, acoustic) he experiences breaking with a group of partisans fighting the German occupation, falling repeatedly in love with the same woman whom he fails to recognize after a long separation, taking her to Switzerland for an abortion, his relationship with his twenty-year-old son who mirrors back to him his own youth. The film has a simultaneous foot in both the past and present. It embraces an entire life and, by doing this, touches the common experience of a whole generation.

Notwithstanding this theme had recent scientific disagreement:
NATURE | NEWS Memory molecule dethroned Two studies refute an enzyme’s essential role in remembering and forgetting. Ed Yong 02 January 2013 Corrected: 04 January 2013

Research puts into question the role of a 'memory molecule' supposed to lead to strengthened connections among neurons, such as those in mouse brains (pictured).
For years, a particular protein has been cast as a lynchpin of long-term memory. Inhibiting this enzyme could erase old memories, whereas adding it could strengthen faded ones1–3. But two independent groups of US scientists have now seriously challenged the role of this 'memory molecule' by developing mice that completely lack it — and showing that these mice have no detectable memory problems.
Their results are published today in Nature 4, 5.
The excitement around the enzyme, called protein kinase M-ζ (PKM-ζ), started building in 2006, when Todd Sacktor at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center in New York City wiped out established spatial memories in rats. He did so by injecting their brains with ZIP, a small peptide that is meant to block the enzyme1.
Other teams obtained similar results, erasing different types of memory by injecting ZIP into various brain regions in rodents, flies and sea slugs. And in 2011, Sacktor did the opposite: he strengthened rats' memory of unpleasant tastes by injecting their brains with viruses carrying extra copies of PKM-ζ3.
Memory surprise Related stories Enzyme can strengthen memories Neuroscience: Small, furry … and smart Long-term memory gets wiped. More related stories
These fascinating studies suggested that long-term memory, rather than being static and stable, is surprisingly fragile, and depends on the continuous activity of a single enzyme.
Richard Huganir of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, was intrigued by these results, but was concerned that much of the data depended on the actions of ZIP. He and his collaborators took a different route, by deleting two genes —  one for PKM-ζ and one for a related protein called PKC-ζ — in embryonic mice4. Working independently, Robert Messing and colleagues at the University of California, San Francisco, created similar mice5. Neither group of mice showed any memory problems. Messing’s animals formed persistent memories for fears, objects, places and movements across a battery of behavioral tests. And Huganir’s mice showed normal levels of long-term potentiation — the strengthening of synapses between two neurons that is thought to underlie learning and memory.
“Our study pretty conclusively says that PKM-ζ does not regulate memory,” says Huganir. “We were quite surprised.” Even more surprisingly, both teams found that ZIP could still disrupt established memories in their mice, despite their lack of PKM-ζ.
“Our study doesn’t rule out the possibility that PKM-ζ may play a role in some forms of memory, but it is not the essential master regulator of memory that the current literature suggests it to be,” says Lenora Volk, a member of Huganir’s team. But Sacktor argues that the results are “not too surprising” because a different gene might have compensated for the loss, as routinely happens in mice that have had some genes deleted. He suspects that related proteins like PKM-ι or PKM-λ may be involved. “I think the future will be to try to find the back-up mechanisms for memory.”
Alternative pathways
However, Huganir’s team also created mice whose PKM-ζ gene could be deleted at will by giving them a specific drug. This allowed the researchers to deplete the enzyme during adulthood, after mice had grown up with normal levels. The animals still showed normal long-term potentiation.
“These results do not show that PKM-ζ is unimportant,” says Lynn Nadel, a cognitive scientist at the University of Arizona in Tucson. “But they show that the situation is complicated—surprise!—and that there are multiple possible pathways involved.”  These other pathways are still a mystery. Without PKM-ζ, “there are not many compelling alternatives for how long-term memory is maintained,” says Huganir. His team is now trying to explore other mechanisms by identifying ZIP’s true targets. “The mechanisms underlying the maintenance of long-term memory will be one of the more exciting areas of neuroscience research for many years to come,” he says.
Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2013.12139 See also the related News & Views Corrections
Corrected: This article originally said that excitement over the PKM-ζ protein began with a paper in Science in 2007. In fact, the increasing interest began with a paper from Todd Sacktor's lab in 2006. The text has now been corrected to reflect this and the 2006 reference has been added
Pastalkova, E. et al. Science 313, 1141–1144 (2006).ArticlePubMedISIChemPort
Show context Shema, R., Sacktor, T. C. & Dudai, Y. Science 317, 951–953 (2007).
Show context Shema, R. et al. Science 331, 1207-1210 (2011).ArticlePubMedISIChemPort
Show context Volk, L. J., Bachman, J. L., Johnson, R., Yu, Y. & Huganir, R. L. Nature (2013).
Show context Lee, A. M. et al. Nature (2013).
Show context
Related stories and links From Enzyme can strengthen memories
03 March 2011
Neuroscience: Small, furry … and smart 14 October 2009
Long-term memory gets wiped 16 August 2007
From elsewhere Richard Huganir's website Robert Messing's website Author information
2013-01-03 08:41 AMReport this comment | #535micah edelson said: Just to clarify:
The citation for the second paragraph (Ref 1) is not a paper from Sacktor's lab, is not about injecting ZIP into the hippocampus, is not about memories of unpleasant smells, and the memory tested in that paper, is not hippocampal dependent (it is a paper dealing with taste aversion in cortex), hence altogether the reference is incorrect.

Symptoms and "monsters"

Nevertheless "oblivion" is neither a fault nor a weakness: it is like an unconsciously deliberate, even exhausting, interminable CENSORSHIP that demands an unrelenting effort, drawing in and wasting repeatedly energy, mostly from the sexual sphere. Therefore this drags increasing consequences, both of impoverishment and/or of actual risk. The EMOTIONS, these real vital, inherent factors of life, these sources of energy which can move us towards awareness and enriching experience, become instead only a dangerous conglomerate of explosive or rotten matter, out of all control. They are unfortunately also at any moment, at any subjectively "traumatic" occasion ready to explode or to wreck the whole person, often dragging his/her relatives and even acquaintances. In a series of joking poems, for this very reason extremely effective, R.Laing's book Knots gives an - only at first - amusing insight on how this lack of self-awareness could indeed seriously and unremittingly damage every relation beyond the wasted person, towards and against all his/her surrounding people and happenings.

Pathological trance is unfortunately almost universally encouraged within business organizations.The more an employee can with single-minded determination execute the orders and policies of his organization, the more that employee is rewarded, promoted and respected. Single-mindedness, however, is a pathological trance. When, unlike a yogi, we do not choose our trances, and we are unaware of the types and nature of the pathological trances in our lives, then there are things we are unaware of. What we are unaware of causes more human suffering than the sometimes painful knowledge of the truth. One goal of a robust and magical life is to be as aware as possible of our options. When our unconscious pathological trances cripple our options the result is often disaster and tragedy in our personal lives, our society and in the environment.
The dissociative, temporary "oblivion" may be an occasional situation for everyone, but, as said above, it is never a problem of age or temporal distance. Old people remember remote experiences far better than recent ones, while the possibility of recalling prenatal experiences has been proved some time ago. (for ex. there was a whole session on it at the - noticed below - 5thį International Congress of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1977, Rome).
(Look at a simple and descriptive explanation in Dissociation.)

Very mighty proposals regarding the recover of memory and its outcomes can be also reached in the mainstream literature: the largest work (12 volumes, a series of seven individual novels that constitute one larger one) - of the famed French writer Marcel Proust is just called A la recerche du temps perdu (Remembrance of Things Past). "The memory of scents and tastes fills his thoughts and colors his health" is written on the cover page of its hardcover edition: it depicts how NOT conscious reconsidering, but the making the most of "involuntary memories", of sensorial sudden happenings gave a profound sense to a continual searching passages of past life. Marcel Proust was a true humanistic writer, not a scientist, but his "emotional autobiography". his way to take advantage of sensorial flash-backs have been praised as a great discover, which made even him and his work a "cult", his so enthusiastic followers jokingly defined "sick of proustitis".

Marcel Proust

Remembrance of Things Past (3 Volume Boxed Set) Marcel Proust, Terence Kilmartin (Translator), C. K. Scott-Moncrieff (Translator). Many famed Film directors tried to get the Recherche as a film: but not as the whole, only separately some of the twelve books. Look at the recent film Memory Lane.

It failed to bring Jim Carrey happiness in the award-winning film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, but scientists have now developed a way to block and even delete unwanted memories from people's brains. Researchers have found they can use drugs to wipe away single, specific memories while leaving other memories intact. By injecting an amnesia drug at the right time, when a subject was recalling a particular thought, neuro-scientists discovered they could disrupt the way the memory is stored and even make it disappear. The research has, however, sparked concern among parliamentary advisers who insist that new regulations are now needed to control the use of the drugs to prevent them becoming used by healthy people as a "quick fix".... In a new study, revealed in the Journal of Psychiatric Research, psychiatrists at McGill University, in Montreal, and Harvard University, in Boston, used an amnesia drug to "dampen" the memories of trauma victims. Prof Karim Nader, of McGill University, said: When you remember old memories they can become 'unstored' and then have to be 'restored'. As the memory is getting restored, we gave patients a drug that turns down the emotional part of the memory. It left the conscious part of the memory intact, so they could still remember all the details but without being overwhelmed by the memory. The research suggests memories can be manipulated because they act as if made from glass, existing in a molten state as they are being created, before turning solid. When the memory is recalled, however, it becomes molten again and so can be altered before it once more resets.The drug used by the scientists is thought to disrupt the biochemical pathways that allow the memory to "harden" after it is recalled. The researchers used propranolol, a drug normally used to treat hypertension in heart disease patients but also known to cause memory problems. They treated 19 accident or rape victims for 10 days with the drug or with dummy pills, while they asked to describe their memories of a traumatic event that happened 10 years earlier.

Healing, psychoanalysis, ripeness... and their opponents

Even when the "repression" is massive and malignant (often "helped" with alcohol or drugs, if not authorized or even forced with so-called medicaments and/or elettroshock) at any time sudden violent flashes of vivid memories (rightly called FLASHBACKS) can spontaneously either fleetingly unblock the memory, or progress when the censorial effort gives away. These do NOT occur due to a  a particular brain power, or a decision, or an external inducement, or some "magical" occurence. The flash-backs, with their vivid emotional psychological reliving, are nevertheless often accompanied by a lot of real BODILY manifestations: one can perhaps hypothesize the possibility that "these" specific memories can be STORED not in the brain itself but everywhere in the "visceral body", in the nervous cells of the A.P.U.D. system, in its so-called paraneurones, which surround bowels and even lodges in perhaps all visceral systems (for example: even in the so called glomes).
(Look also at: Anmnesis: a way for healing...) and on the wide bibliography of Medline / PubMed

And for easier to-read other scientific subjects and bibliographies: Brain talk communities
Look into at: Physical (somatic) memory And on the wholesome physiological site one has to notice the PHEROMONES and their actions. It was in 1986 that Dr.Winnifred Cutler, founder of Athena Institute, and her colleagues conducted the first controlled scientific studies to document the existence of pheromones in humans. Prior to their landmark research there were no conclusive indications that pheromones were excreted by humans. By 1999, from a biological perspective, the term pheromone can be defined as a chemical excreted by animals that promotes behaviors [mostly for to] PERPETUATE THE SPECIES.... She published her first scientific paper on the subject back in 1986, and she has gone on to isolate these'naturally occurring ingredients' and bottle them...
The fertility effect of breastfeeding Breastfeeding emits chemicals which affect other women
Being around breastfeeding mums alters the length of other women's menstrual cycles, say researchers. Chemicals called pheromones given off by the mums - or their babies - Pheromones are chemicals which are emitted by one individual, causing a physical or behavioural change in another.

Physiology of the APUD system.

Record from database: MEDLINE Physiology of the APUD system. Abstract The characteristic biochemical pathway of the APUD cell, namely amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation, are illustrated by the examples of serotonin and catecholamine metabolism. Increasing understanding of the origins of APUDomas as well as the biochemistry and physiology of the hormones they produce, has led to improved methods of detection, imaging and treatment of afflicted patients.

APUD Neuroendocrine and Peptide Systems. Pearse postulated in 1969 the presence of a dispersed system of apud cells -- all of neural crest origin -- so proposed a far-flung 'APUD' neuroendocrine system, secreting peptide mediators. The amines and peptides function variously as neurotransmitters, hormones, and modulators of neural action.  In the 1970s, the focus was on the amine metabolism that gave a unifying aspect to rather perplexing cells, scattered in many organs, which had been noticed and considered on an individual basis as clear (empty looking), or having granules reacting with silver salts. It turned out that most of these cell types made and released non-cytokine peptide mediators, to act locally or at a distance. The peptide story has now overwhelmed the amine or APUD idea, because these peptide factors are many, and are made and used for signaling in every part of the body, including the brain. The basis of the APUD classification is outlined below, because it helps explain aspects of pathology.
1. APUD (APUD cells of neural crest origin: Uptake and Decarboxylation)
Within some endocrine glands, chemoreceptors, the brain, and dispersed in epithelia, are cells that form amine compounds. After an Amine Precursor has been taken Up, the cell Decarboxylates it to form serotonin (5-HT) from 5-hydroxytryptophane, or a catecholamine from dihydroxyphenylalanine (hence APUD).Tumors of these neuroendocrine cells often draw attention because of symptoms resulting from an excess of ectopic (out of place) polypeptide hormone, e.g., ACTH from the bronchial neuroendocrine cell, and/or an excess of serotonin, resulting in the flushing, bronchoconstriction, diarrhea, [to add: sudden temper tantrums] etc. of the carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoids produce a variety of biologic amines, especially serotonin.
tryptophan--> 5-OH/tryptophan--> 5-OH/tryptamin (serotonin)
serotonin------> DEAMINATED*------> 5-OH indole-acetic acid (5-HIAA)
5-HIAA measured in urine : DIAGNOSTIC TEST

This whole matter is explained in books as these:
Body remembersI Remember It Well:
somatic memory of trauma experienced.
by Babette Rothschild
Molecules of EmotionsMolecules of Emotion: Why You Feel the Way You Feel 
by Candace B., Phd. Pert, Deepak Chopra 
Childhood Trauma, the Neurobiology of Adaptation and Use-dependent Development of the Brain:
How States become Traits

Bruce D. Perry,M.D., Ph.D.
Ronnie A. Pollard, M.D. 
Toi L. Blakley, M.D.
William L. Baker, MS
Domenico Vigilante
The Child Trauma Academy

Dr. Michael Gershon has devoted his career to understanding the human bowel (the stomach, esophagus, small intestine, and colon). His thirty years of research have led to an extraordinary rediscovery: nerve cells in the gut that act as a brain. This "second brain" can control our gut all by itself. Our two brains -- the one in our head and the one in our bowel -- must cooperate. If they do not, then there is chaos in the gut and misery in the head -- everything from "butterflies" to cramps, from diarrhea to constipation. Dr. Gershon's work has led to radical new understandings about a wide range of gastrointestinal problems including gastroenteritis, nervous stomach, and irritable bowel syndrome. The Second Brain represents a quantum leap in medical knowledge and is already benefiting patients whose symptoms were previously dismissed as neurotic or  it's all in your head.
For a more practical approach Anamnesis: a way for healing... resumes the main concepts even of the whole site/book as express already on itse title itself: either on regard of development and its disarrays, or on regard of the ways to damage or to recover. The final parts of Anmnesis: a way for healing... are very similar to the final parts of this file/chapter, but more pointed out to match the - only Italian - file/chapter Imbroglio Ť il contrario di sviluppo. The subhead of this main Italian file - very important chapter of the Italian book - endorses an Italian pun derived from the classic Italian Synonyms and Contraries Dictionary by NiccolÚ Tommaseo, where on can find - with many and impressing explanations - the world to develop only as contrary of to embroil. It is a difficult rendering, but it can be paraphrased with these quotes used alike on the subhead of Anamnesis

To embroil/coil reflects to involve; then: the contrary of to develop? At a good side: can to uncoil assist development once restored past embroils? Or at a bad side: a synonym of involved isn't embroil /mislead meaning also FRAUD?

Moreover the complete subhead of Anamnesis contains other quotes pertaining more to consciousness then to memory : Sensible EXPERIENCE? how harmful can be feelings remaining inside to rot, deep rooted without a voice!

Other files/chapters to complete this subject:
What is 'Emotional Labour'?
SUBLIMATIONS: visual schemes and scientific explanation
Opinion, fact, complaint
Ritalin and ADHD: a spoonful of sugar...

And also Italian files strictly related to this one:
Basta un poco di zucchero e la pillola va giý...


To relive does not often, however, open the way to regained health: these memories, these possibilities of reliving in a climate of trust can in their turn breed new, unbearable monsters when they are not collected, or not believed, or - even worse - opposed (especially when discredited as "delusions", if not punished as "slanders"). The victim is not listened to and merely stigmatized as "severely and chronically mentally ill". In this way the victim is so retraumatized by caring professionals / psychiatrists who exercise blind, banal interventions presented as "for the good of the patient", The patient can moreover be persecuted as a wicked liar, as maintained by many taking part in the False Memory Syndrome Foundation). Take a look too on: 

THE HIGHLY MISLEADING Truth and Responsibility in Mental Health Practices Act:
The False Memory Movement's Remedy for a Nonexistent Problem by Judith M.Simon and its bibliography. See instead a larger and up-dated insight on trauma and its consequences and possibilities of care by two online Symposia Group Interventions After Trauma of the American Group Psychotherapy Association (AGPA) - in collaboration with PsyBC and in response to the events of Sept 11th and their aftermath... Read also these subjects on the book:
Group Psychotherapy for Psychological Trauma by Robert H. Klein (Editor), Victor L. Schermer (Editor), K. Roy MacKenzie.
Any way a true Mental Health Practice does not obligatorily mean "dependency": to better understand this subject look on the sub-chapter The "rag-and-bone" shop:
In treatment, the psychotherapist is in a position of power. Often, this  power is unintentionally abused. While trying to embody a compassionate concern for patients, therapists use accepted techniques that can inadvertently lead to control, indoctrination, and therapeutic failure. Contrary to the stated tradition and values of psychotherapy, they subtly coerce patients rather than respect and genuinely help them.... However, there are no regulations discouraging the more covert forms of manipulation, which are not even considered exploitative by many clinicians.
I want  to tell you something paranoid and frightening... about our culture.... We are truly in a death culture and the drug industry is feeding it while promising life.

And below quotations and scripts coming towrds the worse of the worse
GASLIGHTING, the Double Whammy, Interrogation, and Other Methods of Covert Control in Psychotherapy and Analysis by Theodore L. Dorpat, Theo L. Dorpat

Gaslighting: How to Drive Your Enemies Crazy by Victor Santoro

Morning comes quickly Morning Come Quickly by Wanda Karriker.
A novel about a psychologist who wades with trauma survivors, many with multiple personalities, also known as dissociative identity disorder, into a landscape muddied by incest and other sexual abuse, ritual abuse inflicted by destructive cults; unethical medical and mind control experiments, child pornography intersecting with the war over false memories and the organized effort to destroy therapists who treat its casualties. The same Author in her Webpage gathers the testimonies of persons who survived from children pornography:
Children in pornography is a common theme in survivors' accounts of incest, cult and ritual trauma, clergy abuse - about any kind of sexual abuse one can imagine.  Much attention has been given to catching viewers and suppliers of CP and to keeping children from viewing pornography on the Web.  But no one in the mainstream media, now saturated with accounts of cyberporn arrests, convictions, and abductions, is asking an important question about the survivors of CP:
Men and women who remember cameras as tools of terror are, as are all souls who have been unwitting initiates into organized evil, victims of heinous crimes against humanity.  No one can change what happened to them, but there are probably many who would want the world to know that they were tortured and forced to 'star' in CP as children and that they survived.
Up-to-date Dossiers
The complete site of Italian Association, scientific and juridical, against mental, bodily and technological abuses  - even if ever lacking of the newest up-dates - is ready also as an Encyclopedic book It's Abuse NOT Science Fiction
But this book at present needs to be modified: published on July 2005 shortly became OUT OF DATE and so required to present also consequent novelties coming from readers comments, from new deeds and MOSTLY on present-day flash-back discolosures: to manage meaning and implications of the crucial FIRST HAND testimonies, besides to check every inconsistent debate regarding their validation: on EVERY quotation should appear this quote: To note that for some victims it is often easier to write than to speak UP-TO-DATE DOSSIERS of It's Abuse NOT Science fiction = Gli Abusi mentali, fisici e tecnologici NON sono Fantascienza for the time being is a supplementary book, supplementary but matching also by itself not only for propose simple improvement, rather to share some ever up-dating new particular important FIRST HAND documents, which are also printed on the book From children of YESTERDAY to adults of TOMORROW - from page 307.

Our purpose is to explore, study, research, and promote appropriate forms of psychotherapy and growth, including those that emphasize uncovering and resolving traumatic experiences, and to develop a community that is congruent with the principles developed from this work. We invite you to browse through our site.
Trance as a Tool Dennis R. WierDirector, The Trance Research, Bruetten, Switzerland
Forewords & Introductions. Welcome of the book:
The Heart of the Soul: Emotional Awarenes by Gary Zukav).
Trauma and Dreams by Deirdre Barrett (Editor) Linda Francis, Harvard University Press, 1996 (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England)
The Committee of Sleep : How Artists, Scientists, and Athletes Use Dreams for Creative Problem-Solving--And How You Can To or by Deirdre, Ph.D. Barrett)
The Neuroscience of Psychotherapy Building and Rebuilding the Human Brain by Louis Cozolino
FREE ONLINE TRAUMA SYMPOSIUM Presented by the American Group Psychotherapy AssociationNew York Times Company Foundation and the Aol Time Warner Foundation.
GASLIGHTING, the Double Whammy, Interrogation, and Other Methods of Covert Control in Psychotherapy and Analysis  by Theodore L. Dorpat,
Kathleen SullivanThe Fourth Annual Ritual Abuse, Secretive Organizations and Mind Control Conferenc, August 10 - 12, 2001 Group Psychotherapy for Psychological Trauma by Robert H. Klein (Editor), Victor L. Schermer (Editor), K. Roy MacKenzie
Morning Come Quickly by Wanda Karriker (read reviews)
I Was Taught Not to Remember Gabriella's Healing Place for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Ritual Abuse and Trauma

Psychoanalysis as basic implement of effectual Medical Science...

Affections should remain within the integrity of sensible experience, which is the condition to obtain the fullness of existence without ever assuming the faulty feature of that sensorial deprivation, that inhibition by contact typical of rationalizing processes, thus avoiding the paradox of the dignity of reason that denies the integrity of the person.
(See the 2005 Festival della Filosofia sui Sensi - Modena)

On the contrary several deadly equivocations were born and continue to rage on the wave of philosophical - and religious or pseudo-religious - theories that for centuries have characterised our civilization: the human leaning - or perhaps one should say  - the consequence of having been deprived independently from individual cultural level mostly moves in the direction of superstition and deceit hierachycally transmitted, rather than towards the fullness of existence and its FREE CHOICES. Several superstitions are spreading having an element or a fancy whatsoever as an object to adore, an end to pursue or in which to believe blindly. Several words are currently used in an inaccurate way in turn foreboding renewed "deprivations", while their wrong meaning is idealized as an IDOL to which to tribute a superstitious adoration. For instance do not rational, rationality. to comprehend derive from exact Latin terms meaning only an artificial system of measurement (ratio= ruler .....) ???
Even "will", as a word and a concept, joins the confusion of inflated meanings: one never uses INTENTIONALITY that presupposes the underlined emotion governing the direct action moment by moment. (How often someone who is prey to the emotion known as desolation - when all becomes useless and meaningless - is accused of being bereft of will, how often one praises the willpower in someone proceeding unperturbed, detached from all sensations and cautions! )

(Look to the holding container about Borderline Personality Disorder.
 The Treater Blinks!Kathi Stringer.)>
However - as a person wrote having survived terrible experiences followed by many, many years of unsupportive, devalidating, re-traumatizing therapy:
skipping all my developmental phases might disqualify me from being heard? but again.... NOT. Whereas: when sustained finally by PARTICIPATION, these memories are no longer enemies; no matter what terrible facts they aknowledge, they become something to change into "jackpots", they become indeed very lucky occasions to not only "silence the monsters" - finally for ever -  but also to can turn the previously unbearable sensations into deep, enriching EXPERIENCES.
Conscious experience is the way to reach the fullness of existence. Consciousness of one's past - no matter what sort of past -  substantially contributes to determine what is defined as the depth of a person, opposed to inconsistency and fatuity. Moreover, each consciously borne experience not only pertains to - the after all banal - reason, but it is the very root of true RIPENESS and WISDOM for the subject, besides being fount of vital culture for all of us. (As means the famous Shakespeare's quote: RIPENESS IS ALL.)
Two are the mainstream ways opened by Freud on behalf of Medical cares, Scientific knowledge and everyone better possibilities to manage oneselves, children's life and past memories: the equalization between traumatic and unaccepted emotions - as quoted above - and  this awareness to DISTINGUISH and therefore to feasibly UNTIE the dependencies, when recognized in their true shape of TRANSFERT(S) - surely plural.

Here it must be POINTED OUT two Freud's great - in sum up his greatest - DISCOVERIES: as written above - see damaged development - not only the "blocking" of bad events is the sickening cause of mind illnesses, but, often and also perhaps far-reaching, are inner conflicts and unpreparedness rising from not well developed phases and from mixed emotions not yet ready to be geared. So the first of these discoveries is Freud's forethought regarding the equalization between TRAUMATIC FACTS and UNACCEPTED EMOTIONS in the patients' care, an equalization which is a very basic gift given to all by Freud's PSYCHOANALYSIS. To better explain: it was the REGAINED RESPECT for both situations which allowed such enormous improvements in theory and practice. Exactly this liberal respect - faced with trauma memories together with "fake" dramatizations (aka "neurotic symptoms") based "only" on typical but mismanaged developmental emotions - can be such a mighty help for the psychiatric possibility of HEALING, for the general Medicine, and for the general amount of psychological and children rearing knowledge.


Words are used for pointing out "deeds" but not ever these deeds are the same for the interlocutors: every one believes to be understood or to understand when instead from this deafs' speech rises a series of misjudgements and fake promises. A typical common place misconception disparages psychoanalysis as a sure way to give rise to an everlasting attitude to dependence: confusing - or rather even disowning - this basic tool of effectual Medical Science with every other kind of therapy, with whichever other technical or spontaneous condition of aid, support, counseling, assistance, listening...
Instead more than a Century ago this was already the main... reversal which separated Freud and Breuer not only regarding their theories but also themselves as associates doctors (1889-1892): till then, the term TRANSFERENCE should have been considered, and its real meaning correctly defined. Of the matter of fact and on the contrary of common place banality, psychoanalysis from then became the ONLY actual way to allow whoever as sick as he/she is to go into one's own TRUE life, into one's TRUE present time, near and in TRUE relationship with real, not "imagined" present living persons and "occurrences". Therefore it is COMPELLING to take the opportunity to give a drastic explanation apt to define which are the real "facts", not to precise only the semantics of word not as a way to speak, but as defined by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary:
Main Entry: trans¬∑fer¬∑ence  Pronunciation: tran(t)s-'f&r-&n(t)s, 'tran(t)s-(")
Function: noun
1 : an act, process, or instance of transferring: CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER
2 : the redirection of feelings and desires and especially of those unconsciously retained from childhood toward a new object (as a psychoanalyst conducting therapy)
On regard of this term - transference - so often so much misused since confused with dependency - it is urgent to get other explanatory notes, since this redirection can be enacted not only for memories of real deeds and persons, as much also for "lived" even conscious egocentric imaginations. To transfer, as sounds the latin word trans-fero, could be translated as equivalent to "to transport", "to convey" something from there to here, and also - in the current second meaning - from a reality, from a person, from a situation of the past, or from inner self-centered feelings towards the present person(s) and occurences.
 Therapy is not an ordinary social exchange between individuals. Instead, it is quite different. Consider Freud's original psychoanalytic therapy. He would sit with his back to the patient while the patient lay on the couch and free associated. Imagine talking to a friend who would not answer you! One of the characteristics of therapy is transference, where the patient begins transfer the feelings which emerge in therapy to the therapist. So, the patient may come to like or to hate the therapist. In psychoanalytic therapy, such transference is expected and is a sign of progress on the part of the patient.
All this so assumes the shape of a private psycho-drama where the NEUTRAL, passive part is performed by the care-giver who, instead to - unaware - being compelled into, can willing and conscious accept to act the part lived or re-lived by the patient: here playing the role of a stage show director, in his/her ever changing psycho-drama. This explains why transference is the contrary of dependency: the task of a skilled and aware therapist is not to be ever compassionate and affectionate, but to be able to recognize how much one can be facilitated by the intense, actual emotions risìng utterly into an ever changing unconscious and spontaneous scenario. To use this possibility requires more an actor's skill than sympathy: not for being an "actor" as synonym of "liar", but "actor" as able to follow the director's orders even if totally unplanned. The transference becomes then a PRIVILEGED SET where patient's past occurences and actual flights of fancy - dumped on present interpersonal relations - can be observed almost directly, and directly "played" together. Knowing eye-witness such characteristic gives an authoritative possibility "to catch" symptomatic interpersonal misconducts: on behalf of all environmental involved people.
Summarizing: to exercise this professional task does NOT consist of an only enduring "to listen" mere words, but of a powerful and lively to assist as co-protagonist the patient's incoming memories: so psychanalysis became the UNIQUE way NOT to foster dependency but to really SOLVE it.
Any way in this ever changing sets and scenarios, rules of protagonists and co-protagonists every "tranference" can disappear, the true possibility of a total healing can rise and grow.
Nature and health and true life are ever changing, ever NEW: health doesn't know transference; "normality" is ever to be interested, searching, longing for, to be stimulated by novelties and to foster new inner ever broad feelings. Instead every possible entangled "transference" arises and esteblishes only in a pathologic situation, derived from a pathological development, giving whenever source(s) to other repetitive mishaps. (Look a moking paradigm of such a never lasting self-referencing in Knots by R.D. Laing They are playing a game...): mightly pointing out to confirm that only a wanting past, a selfish bulk lot of worn-out believings cannot take advantage of knowledge of facts to be translated in real memories to construct deep awareness; only a wanting past doesn't adhere to actual reality and relations. A wanting whole life so continue to "shrink" itself and to coil feelings in repetitious "transferred knots", in caricatural blockages and in blocked ties.
To give up such - abusive - tranferred selfish-based significances opens finally the way to the TRUE LIFE, to a healing road towards a real - not imagined - existence.

What is such a true life? Stop to change others and open to accept just as they are.

Could it really happen? And then: towards which direction has to heed the most suitable feelings? Surely not in selfish muddled "knots" as described by R.Laing, not on a fake "identification" which is instead a big confusion between "in" and "out" not only mixed together then moreover not recognized in a total unawareness. On the contrary a veritable self centered appraisal does not be called "egotism": it is the effective personal "instrument" to consider and accept every "outside": only with this attitude one can never be willing to change this "outside" since to change oneself for better focusing on making shifts and changes in oneself, as the unique way >when one alone can positively change any relationship in his life.
A descriptive story better than boring explanation can impress this concept: so well stressed by the basic assertion that  if I want to transform any significant relationship in my life, I can stop trying to change others and open to accepting and loving everyone just as they are.
Breakthrough With Dad
In my younger years, my relationship with my dad was lousy. I often considered him my nemesis. Yet as I gradually worked on improving all my relationships and deepened my commitment to choosing what's best for all of us, I eventually knew it was time to heal my old wounds with dad. Below is the inspiring story of how I was able to have a major breakthrough with dad. Through this and many similar experiences in my life, I've come to see ever more clearly how one person alone can change even a very difficult relationship.
With two years completely immersed in another world away from family and friends, I'd had plenty of opportunities to reflect on my life back home. In those periods of contemplation, I felt a deep sense of satisfaction in realizing that I had come to really enjoy my relationships with all of my friends and family back home with only one major exception‚€”Dad.
As a child, I had very mixed feelings about my father. He took us on wonderful, exciting vacations car camping around the country for a month out of each year. In his engaging moments with me and my sister and two brothers, he could be adventurous, enthusiastic, and a lot of fun. Yet, like so many fathers out there, most of the time he was distant and unavailable. As a minister and a fighter for peace and justice, his work was by far his greatest passion with family a distant second. What's more, at meals‚€”our only regular gathering time each day‚€”he would all too often preach politics to us, his unwilling captive audience. There was no debating him, either. He was always right.
Yet in looking back, I could see now what I once would never have admitted‚€”that I was just as stubborn as dad. There was no way I would acknowledge that he was right in a debate or argument. I would argue with him fiercely, yet still he managed to get me every time. I remember countless times when our interactions ended with me stalking off frustrated and angry, as dad settled back triumphantly into his chair reading the newspaper. Sometimes I just hated him. His righteous attitude seemed so hypocritical and just wrong!
After moving away from home at age 18, I had dedicated myself to improving my relationships with my family and others in my life. Thanks to some wonderful divine guidance, I had been successful with everyone except dad. He was the one person I still just couldn't get along with. As I contemplated leaving the wonderfully rich experience in China, I knew that the time had come to change this. I knew that on getting home, if I wanted to get along better with him, my job was to learn to let dad be dad. I realized that I could not change him, but I could change myself by letting go of my need to be right and of my harsh judgments of him and his behavior. I knew that If I wanted to change our frustrating dynamic, I was the one who would have to change.
The idea came to me that the best way to heal this old family wound was to move in with dad and make a commitment to opening my heart and to becoming friends with him for the first time in my life. I knew it would not be easy. Yet I also knew that if I could hold fast to my intention of not letting his comments get to me and not needing to be right, we could have a breakthrough. I wrote dad a letter asking if he was interested in becoming friends, and if he would be open to my living with him on return from China to work on this.
Dad was thrilled at the idea of us becoming friends and warmly welcomed me into his home. He was very supportive of my desire to move through our difficulties. He even spruced up a little room in his house for me. Yet after a brief, enjoyable "honeymoon" period of about two months, I found those same old patterns staring me right in the face again. Dad again was always right and I ended up leaving frustrated, knowing that I was actually right‚€”just like old times. Why did it always have to end up that way?
Yet I held to my commitment. I remembered that If I wanted to change this disempowering dynamic, I was the one who would have to change. So gradually, I learned to hold me tongue. When discussion turned to debate, I would do my very best not to engage, not to get caught up in trying to prove him wrong. If the conversation turned competitive, I learned to be quiet and to wait for the appropriate moment to excuse myself, so that I could go let off steam on my own. Even though I still didn't agree with him, I slowly learned to simply listen and to be OK with letting dad have the last word. I couldn't change his behavior or beliefs, but I was gradually changing mine.
Those few months were tough. I's not easy to break deeply ingrained family patterns, but I was committed. Every time things spun out of control, I reminded myself of my deep intention to become friends with dad and even to love him. By holding strong to that commitment, I got increasingly better at pulling back whenever our talks didn't feel supportive. By the end of six months, I had done it! I could sit through a converation where dad was telling me how I was wrong and feel no need to engage or respond. When he challenged or blamed me, I could just let him have his say. I learned to just acknowledge that I heard him, remembering not to take anything personally and to just let dad be dad.
As I got better at this, I eventually came to understand that dad was not consciously trying to attack me. He was just playing out old patterns and programming within himself. I could accept and even love him just the way he was‚€”even the part of him that wouldn't admit he was wrong. Dad seemed to notice the difference, too. I especially remember one particular day when dad was doing his thing. I simply nodded my head occasionally and said "I hear you, dad," without feeling any need to defend myself. At one point he fell silent and I just sat quietly waiting. Then I heard words I don't think I'd ever heard him say in these circumstances, "Well, Fred, what do you think?" And for the first time, I felt my dad was really listening to me.
From that point on, though we still would hit occasional rough spots, dad and I began having meaningful conversations. He became increasingly interested in my opinion and his tone of voice lost that cutting edge. For the first time ever, we were actually friends! What an incredibly empowering change in my life - in our lives! I was amazed that although my deep intention was just to let dad be who he was, once I made the big shift, dad shifted, too! What a gift!!! From that point on, our relationship gradually grew warmer and deeper.
Many years later for my dad's 70th birthday, I recorded his fascinating life story on over two hours of tape. What great, rich stories he had! What a wonderful, bonding time we shared!!! What a long way we've come! Thanks, dad, for being such a wonderful presence in my life. And I give thanks for the divine guidance which helped me to realize that if I want to transform any significant relationship in my life, I can stop trying to change others and open to accepting and loving everyone just as they are. By focusing on making shifts and changes in myself, I now know without a doubt that I alone can positively change any relationship in my life

Re-living and transfert

Relived memories any time can come to the surface: highly redeeming, but more often if provided and well-directed: the more if supported by participation, they not only cease to be inimical, not only silence at long last and forever the "monsters", but also can even transform earlier unbearable sensations into true, profound, enriching EXPERIENCES. On the contrary: if these relived memories/ evidences are NOT collected , NOT believed or even worse derided and opposed, taken for delirium or slanders, in their turn aggravate the sleep of reason and at a wide range breed new self-reproducing monsters, not manageable, often irretrievably destructive.
(For information on the so called "critical experiences" leading to disrupt the capacities to modulate emotions and pertinent psychic defence mechanisms see Trauma and dissociation and also the related pages in the main Psychiatric Text DSM-5. And for farther data on uncollected, unbelieved or even worse derided memories and emotions see the Italian file/chapter Imbroglio Ť il contrario di sviluppo [= to coil reflects to involve; then: the contrary of to develop? At a good side: can to uncoil assist development once restored past embroils? Or at a bad side: synonyms of involved are embroiled /misled, meaning also FRAUD] with its new adds and links and also the file/chapter TOTEM AND TABOO revisited: awful and feritle rise of new SUPERSTITIONS foundamental on this subject.
Luckily not even this must inevitably fall into an absolutely unavoidable fate: NOBODY - no matter how ill they are - can be totally prevented from being able, if wanting to follow or to regain a personal course of life. NOT every one - no matter how "sick" - is hindered in becoming herself/himself and will do follow the personal way. The citation below shows how a basic personal structure can make always exist: no matter how much suffering, nobody is doomed to become a submissive, a-critical follower of teachers, gurus, or even unreliable therapists, neither during a hard and longlasting psychanalytic care. These quotes below are very important to deny and refute the wrong common place idea regarding psychanalisis itself, and point out how every one is NOT so easily dependent even on parents themselves, to testify how and why does NOT "transference" and the person object of transference steal personal willing: how NOT every one is predestined to be a "follower".
It is true. I don't always follow. I can't follow my parents. But I can't  defend myself against them. I have to run, have to hide to protect me. Seeing a book review, badly written but profound... talking about the t raumatized patient seeing in the therapist a defective "holding container"... then talking about what happens when the therapist reinforces a false self...: how destructive it is to the patient. Many people... many many... there is distress... reaching out... the person on the other end does not want to hear it or so it seems... So the patient is harmed by the fact that she switches back into another personality... one who is perceived by the helping person as "now you are yourself again"... [My therapist] suddenly became very  dangerous to me... emotionally abusive. and I decided that I didn't deserve so much bad treatment. I should leave her. I suddenly knew it was time to stop therapy rather than being destroyed by therapists. I was very unwilling and frightened to try again...

The "rag-and-bone" shop

Apropos of the word "transfert" a flat specification - more factual than semantic - is MUCH NEEDED to resolve a series of equivocations and false expectations. The word, derived from Latin, literally means to transfer, that is to say to transport, to convey something from there to here, including relived emotions that are unconsciously piled up by people or objects from the past, or by present fantasy on people and situations - instead separate, differential, NEUTRAL, moreover unconscious and all together unaware. (All this muddle of "times removed", fantastical attributions, psuedo-rationalistic misunderstandings is poetically described and evidenced in the  jocking chapters of  Knots by R.D. Laing They are playing a game...). Whoever its object is, he/she is entirely overcharged with other's lived memories, without understanding neither their nature nor their reason - whereas the subject tends to react, deceived in his/her expectations and pseudo-convictions: every moment of such pseudo-relationships can only give cause to an endless talk to the winds - wherefrom very tenacious entangled dependences derive. On the contrary, when the speaker is in a position to accept that a transfert is being enacted - as did Freud in contrast with Breuer - , it becomes possible to re-transform such a sterile meeting between incommunicable entities into a factive dialogue: or even much more to help actively the "protagonist" on recognizing his real intents, willings, needs, memories...
Chronologically this has been the Freud's first GREAT DISCOVERY, which sanctioned the incompatibility between his method and that of Breuer (1889-92): in a practical sense all this presupposes that one is in a position to consent to play the part of an actor, if not of a dummy in an inner performance by the person who plays an active part - in the case of therapy: the patient. Performing the actor in this series of private psychodramas impede them to be fixed as "dependences" and "ties", but it is not always an easy task for a ... not "professional actor".
Notwithstanding just these difficulties are very rewarding and give another advantage: the conscious commitment places the therapist in an extremely privileged position: under his/her eyes and in his/her emotionally to play actor role, the doctor in charge can not only apprehend but also personally ASCERTAIN the situations the patient/producer not only "tells" but also expounds and presentifies - unconsciously, but in a very effective manner.
Should one comply with the patient's relived memories and accept not to take an active part in them in a misunderstood bond? As Freud discovered more than a Century ago only in this way  the true possibility of RECOVERY from a past no longer gangrening materializes. And then, only when every transfert has DISAPPEARED, one can move towards a full admittance to the true renewed personality. NORMALITY, relating to the present changeable reality - see the whole file Anamnesis? A way for healing... - is NEVER structured into static formations, into interpersonal relations endlessly entangled in themselves - see again the playful paradigm on their indelible
self-referentiality in Knots by R.D. Laing. Only when coming from a faulty past adhesion to reality, and recognizing the novelty of RELATIONS - in their mobile and enriching interchange - one finds himself/herself plunge into from one moment to the next one, no more contracted and enrolled in repetitive pathological transferts, in grotesque blocked knots and blocking ties.
The dissolving of transferts, the loss/renunciation of meanings arbitrarily given to undue transferences, to shift from emotions only SUBJECTIVELY referred to something and someone on something else and someone else, opens at last the way to TRUE LIFE: if not to "the joy of living" at least to LIVING and not vegetating lost in isolated world and in the void of one's fancies, expectations and fears.
Could allow then a true recovery prevent badly digested memories, give the faculty to replace bad memories and/or inconsistent imagination with lived suffered EXPERIENCES?
Why it is instead so longlasting and not ever granted for a so from a Century tested therapy to break such an extreme solitude, in its selfihness and incapacity to acknowledge one's role in the world? Why is so unfair to suppose that it could be simple and effortless and quick and granted to come out from a repetitive, narrow, monotonic past: any way believed to be the undisputed source of foreseeable convictions? Why seems so painful give up the funnel-shaped structure of the "pathologic"? Why disparage oneself freedom and dignity and mind in favour of an always hierarchical world in its superiority/inferiority, and magic or anyway fideistic in its substantial?
In reality it is biased to simplify and naively think that to convoy towards a "normality" - never previously known nor even imagined - should be ever rewarded and at first thanked: it is fearful to manage a future without a sure "guidance", it is also difficult and heavy to renounce to turn own's mishaps against external pseudo-enemies. But for the actor/therapist is hard personally to not fall not enough ready in persecutory sets where "dependency" is changed in persecutory disapproval, nor can one deceptively confide that it could be easy to "sacrifice" the illusion of being capable to stand as "prophets" (more or less of "woe" or of "sensational miracles").
On the matter of fact this can be accomplished, but only with an unpredictable lot of time and patience and only if the "actor rule" could be well played without surrender not only when the director/patient requires a rule of a fake-guru but also when it should match as a persecuting "enemy".

To set off in an open, new, varied, variable and diversified world rouses dismay and an anxious wish for denial, hence it is not even desirable to accelerate the entrance into the wide breath and mutability of NORMALITY - viable but unpredictable. But meanwhile - following the road to vix medicatric Naturae - the process tends to go on by itself autonomously. When accepted, little by little the frightened dismay dissolves into more bearable, realistic bewilderment. When false transferts cease to occupy all the room available in an egocentric confusion between the inner self that does not recognize himself/herself and a non-existent outer that represents merely a mirror of it, the slipping away from this poverty of second-hand recycling at last can allow true choices. When the waste of a badly digested past or impositions do no longer authorize the empty prophesying, then attention, pre-cautions, vigilance find their place again.
Then true affections, the true sense of responsibility, appear: TRUE not only because they are in agreement with personal taste and style, but also because they calibrate from time to time according to the - by now well recognized and assessed - actual circumstances.
This not only implies "sacrifices", but also offers a farther prize to the real self, cleaned from the remnants of a PAST never really passed. To enter the unforeseeable future free from useless apprehensions allows to blossom and to bear fruit in successive EVOLUTIONS, but also the PRESENT blossoms again, now charged with "intensity" and fullness, and can at long last express itself even and IN EVERY MOMENT in that basic, continuing exclusive right that consists in the power to recognize and declare I LIKE IT/ I DON'T LIKE IT.

REFERENCES on very precocious memory:

new born's eyes

A new-born's keen, wide-awake eyes...
look at a newborn baby, bright-eyed, gazing straight at you?
Is there really a person there? (Take a look on the site APPPAH source of the image above)
(look on the contrary the "fashion" to oblige babies on prone position.)

PNASPublished online before print June 24, 2002, 10.1073/pnas.152159999
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 14, 9602-9605, July 9, 2002


Eye contact detection in humans from birth

Making eye contact is the most powerful mode of establishing a communicative link between humans. During their first year of life, infants learn rapidly that the looking behaviors of others conveys significant information. Two experiments were carried out to demonstrate special sensitivity to direct eye contact from birth. The first experiment tested the ability of 2- to 5-day-old newborns to discriminate between direct and averted gaze.

Teresa Farroni*, Gergely Csibra*, Francesca Simion, and Mark H. Johnson*
* Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, School of Psychology, Birkbeck College,
University of London
, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, United Kingdom;
Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione, University of Padua,
Via Venezia 8, 35131 Padua, Italy Edited by Michael I. Posner, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, and approved May 16, 2002 (received for review March 19, 2002)

In the second experiment, we measured 4-month-old infants' brain electric activity to assess neural processing of faces when accompanied by direct (as opposed to averted) eye gaze. The results show that, from birth, human infants prefer to look at faces that engage them in mutual gaze and that, from an early age, healthy babies show enhanced neural processing of direct gaze.The exceptionally early sensitivity to mutual gaze demonstrated in these studies is arguably the major foundation for the later development of social skills.

Note: a whole session of an International Congress of many years ago:
5th International Congress of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1977 Rome,
See the URL of the society APPPAH (american): for bibliography Resources 100 Books (And Videos, Tools) or of the European ISPPM endowing a very wide a href="">bibliography and archives.

International Congresses of the ISPPM:

  1. 1986 - Badgastein / Austria The Contribution of Prenatal Psychology to Preventive Medicine, Preventive Psychology and Preventive Aspects of the Socially-Oriented Professions
  2. 1989 - Jerusalem / Israel Encounter with the Unborn
  3. 1992 - Cracow / Poland The Unborn Child within the Family"
  4. 1995 - Heidelberg / Germany A Time to be born
  5. 1998 - London / United Kingdom Conscious Birth The Experience of a Lifetime
  6. 2000 - Cagliari / Italy Prenatal Psychology: Methodology in Research
  7. 2001 - Sydney / Australia Bridging the Gap: Prenatal and Postnatal Life
  8. 2002 - Budapest / Hungaria The Importance of Prenatal Psychic Space for the Individual and Society: Towards an Integration of Medical, Psychological and Psychoanalytical Aspects of Prenatal Development.
  9. 2005 - Heidelberg / Germany The Anthropology and Psychology of Pregnancy and Birth
  10. 2007 ‚€“ Moscow / Russia The Unborn Child and Society

APPPAH was founded in 1983 by Toronto psychiatrist and psychologist Thomas R. Verny, M.D., D.Psych., F.R.C.P.C., as a forum for individuals from diverse backgrounds and disciplines interested in psychological dimensions of prenatal and perinatal experiences. Typically, this includes childbirt educators, birth assistants, doulas, midwives, obstetricians, nurses, social workers, perinatologists, pediatricians, psychologists, counselors, researchers, and teachers at all levels. One does not have to be a professional, however: all who share these interests are welcome to join. 
The Association has published the Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal quarterly since the Fall o 1986. Beginning with volume 12 (1) Fall, 1997 the title of the journal will be Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health. This peer-reviewed journal is now published by the Association. On a quarterly schedule, the Association publishes The APPPAH Newsletter. Terry Larimore is Editor. The Newsletter is sent automatically to members. Regarding contributions, please contact the Editor. One Hundred Books (and Videos Too) is revised annually and covers publications and releases in the last fifteen years.

APPPAH (Association for Pre- & Perinatal Psychology and Health)
340 Colony Rd., Geyserville, CA 95441. Maureen Wolfe, C.N.M., Executive Director Collaborations, Tel: 707-857-4041, Fax 707-857-4042 E-mail:
APPPAH's 17th International Congress PSYCHOMEDIA Telematic Review
Section: LIFE CYCLE Area: Pre- and Perinatal
Redazione dell'Area: Antonio Imbasciati, Anna Della Vedova
And also more recent:
Echoes from the Womb: Applications for Lifelong Well-Being

Milani and Gidoni investigate the development of fetal movements. They have discovered the fetus¬īs ability to move and quiet itself. They have discovered correlations to patter of movement long before birth; these movements, with which the fetus has for some time experimented, allow for an active participation in the birth process as well as for survivaloutside of the womb; fetal movements can not longer be relegated to early primitive reflexes. That, according to Milani and Gidoni, the newborn has his own competencies need not further be emphasized here, though perhaps, that both also ascribe competencies to a newborn even though he may be premature, or for some other reason congenitively damaged.
A study carried out at the University of Leicester, to be shown on BBC's Daily Mail Online reveals that babies remember sounds they heard in the womb and recognize them well into later life. The study, by Dr Alexandra Lamont from the Music Research Group at the University's School of Psychology, demonstrates how one-year-old babies recognize music they were exposed to up to three months before birth. The discovery explodes the theory that babies can only remember things for a month or two and suggests that memory could last a great deal longer than that.
"in order to improve the quality of humanity, it is necessary to improve
the quality of its life since the conception!"� 
(P. F. Freyberg).
Auditorium Hall of the Parma University

World Organisation of Prenatal Education Association


Lenore Terr

To be conscious at a very infantile age and even to can describe memories? Biological and very precocious - animal - consciousness?
Last but not least: look also at the actual Italian document shared with the - recently improved - Italian file/chapter titled for  a recurring nightmare, and read in English the book and bibliography presented by this Author: Lenore Terr Unchained memories

Unfortunately not everybody can enjoy a lucky birth: a difficult, painful, even if not terrifying and life-endagering birth can cause a lot of damaging feelings during one's whole life. This misfortune can be overcome like every other trauma, but like every other trauma only when the ill-fated persons are able, or better still: only when they are brave enough to take out from unconscious body-memories their birth's true sensations and can so understand and accept their risky entry into life.. (Refer to the classic book written by Freud's direct disciple Otto Rank The Trauma of Birth (International Library of Psychology).

Very early animal consciousness?
cucciolata Morea
A fetus 45 days old can answer to a tactile
stimulus; when one palpates the uterus he twists and sucks its umbilical cord. After the thirtieth day if one gently massages the mother's abdomen the pets will become more warm and responsive. Instead for every bad emotion felt by the mother the fetus sucks his leg or the umbilical cord, for longer if the mother's bad feeling is intense. A bit of advice: to have new borns who are more sensible and balanced one has to avoid stresses against the pregnant mother.
Forty five, thirty... days... It is easy to guess here that these quotes don't refer to pre-birth human beings: here the subject of the description and advice are simply little dogs, not only "puppies" but even "fetuses"!

the greatest Magali when littlest puppy

This file/chapter is dedicated at first to CONSCIOUSNESS besides followed by its necessary addendum: MEMORY. But a true consciousness should be absolutely settled by another complement: the concreteness as the opposite to empty appearance. This proposal is well displayed in the below cartoon from an Italian classic amusing book, IL giornalino di Gian Burrasca = Stormy Johnny's journal, a fundamental reading about a young daredevil at the beginning of XX century not proposed only to children: these pictures  describe one of his most significant "misdemeanors for good-will": the "artificial" pseudo-growth of a neighbor's "beloved plant". Moreover the "miraculous" fake improvement of the plant isn't similar to the only seeming and void pseudo-smart precocity and/or healing given by behaviorism and cognitivism?

CONSCIOUSNESS and doubts, CONSCIOUSNESS and warning?
Sleeping reason breeds monsters
and monsters?
Then it is compelling to WATCH, to WATCH. to WATCH. Ever should be rejected not documented mere asserptions together with not enough probed even oneself's own feelings. DOUBTS for sustaining to MIND and WIDE RANGE AWARENESS must be ever the foremost GUIDES.

CONSCIOUSNESS: courage and/or boldness? precaution and/or unreasonable fears? i prepoteenti mangiano la vostra paura

Tyrants don't devour you: they devour your FEAR.... (da Joseph P. Orwell lI libro dei senza paura - Manuale per vincere ed affrontare le paure da piccoli - Dami Editore)

At the end of anal complex, the flourishing of Oedipus one set a new "purely personal" way of existence which may reappear but no longer in restricted "entangling" form where persons are felt "inflationed" as "symbols": at first place "mom", "dad", "children" can finally disentangle themselves from mythical,fabled beings: on revealing each one and at each time their real nature they do not disappear, but re-appear immediately reconstructed - truly the "solve at coagula" of the alchemists!- with their propoer name, character, way to behave.

...not all think so...

But not EVERYONE could thinks as stated above:
A commonplace chat:
- Children don't understand...,
- No matter: children forget everything...,
- Don't warn: the children surely won't notice....
and so on.
If the experience isn't a deception, then every theory which affirms the contrary must be wrong ... says R. Laing in his book The voice of experience
Italian translation is out of print), but a little below:
- Do you think that the baby can feel?
- I asked to him

The academic answers without hesitation:
- Sorry: I don't not even be able to imagine such an eventuality.
And this denouncing, sad quotation from another Laing's book:   The specifically human feature of human groupings can be exploited to turn them into the semblance of non-human systems.... All those people who seek to control the behavior of large numbers of other people work on the experiences of those other people. Once people can be induced to experience a situation in a similar way, they can be expected to behave in similar ways. Induce people all to want the same thing, hate the same things, feel the same threat, then their behavior is already captive - you have acquired your consumers or your cannon-fodder. Induce a common perception of Negroes as subhuman, or the Whites as vicious and effete, and behavior can be concerted accordingly..... The inertia of human groups, however, which appear as the very negation of praxis, is in fact the product of praxis and nothing else. This group inertia can only be an instrument of mystification if it is taken to be part of the "natural order of things". The ideological abuse of such an idea is obvious. It so clearly serves the interests of those whose interest it is to have people believe that the statu quo is of the 'natural order', ordained Divinely or by 'natura's laws. ... The group becomes a machine - and it is forgotten that it is a man-made machine in which the machine is the very men who make it. It is quite unlike a machine made by men, which can have an existence of its own. The group is men themselves arranging themselves in patterns, strata, assuming and assigning different powers, functions, roles, rights, obligations and so on.
Ronnie Laing- pp. 80-1 / Ch.4 - The Politics of Experience. [1967]

Until the 1980s it was denied that fetuses and neonates feel pain. With the advent of a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology and new diagnostic tools, the last 30 years have seen great developments in this field, but the treatment of neonatal and fetal pain is still a controversial issue and a central topic, not only in specialties directly concerned with it, but also in bioethics. Some important issues are still under investigation. When does pain perception appear? Is it ethical to cure fetal pain? Does fetal pain have consequences for the developing brain? Can a fetus suffer?
This volume aims to give an overview of current knowledge in the field. An international team of specialists has been assembled to evaluate neonatal and fetal pain from various points of view – neurological, pediatric, gynecological, anesthesiological – and with regard to possible consequences of pain (including psychological) for the brain.
Neonatal Pain: Suffering, Pain, and Risk of Brain Damage in the Fetus and Newborn
Giuseppe Buonocore (Editor), Carlo V. Bellieni (Editor), I. Carrasco de Paula (Foreword)
This book, authored mostly by Italian physicians and scientists, describes pain in the fetus and neonate and its consequences in later life. … This is a good resource for neonatologists, obstetricians, pediatric surgeons, and other medical and nursing professionals in the field of perinatal care. … This is a good book on many aspects of fetal and neonatal pain that provides a fairly extensive review of the world literature on this controversial subject. (Jay P. Goldsmith, Doody’s Review Service, March, 2008)
Neonatal Pain … presents nineteen contributions by an international group of physicians and scientists which describe and review recent medical studies indicating that fetuses and newborns do suffer pain and stress and that these stresses may have adverse effects on the children’s mental, physical, and emotional development. … provides an accessible and valuable resource for the nonscientific expert. The authors also … highlight potential health problems in the fetus and developing child that may arise in response to pain and stress.

Go to Italian files strictly related to this one:

Basta un poco di zucchero e la pillola va giý...
and mostly at: Dal Sublimato al Concreto
and to ESPERIMENTI SU BAMBINE/I  - part translated in English

boys and kittens copyright Pucci Violigirls and puppies copyright Pucci Violi

Read also the Amazon's Author presentation
Anna Abbiate Fubini-Biography&Bibliography

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